Gay

Mutsara ungochani wakawana Nzira Yake kuChirungu munguva yose yezana muGreek Old gay.

MuchiShona, shoko rinoreva kuti 1890s iyo yaiva netariro yakaramba ichizivikanwa seGay Nineties. Izvi zvakange zvisingatauri zvisati zvaitika 20th century iyo iyo mutsara yakatanga kushandiswa kuti ireve zvakananga "ungochani", asi ingadai yakamboita zvepabonde.

Zita rokuti gayety rinotarirwa rinogara risina kureva Sensual zvinoreva uye rinosanganisira, kare, rakashandiswa kubva kune mazita ezvimbo dzekunakidzwa; dzakadai sechiitiko cheWB Yeats chakatora hurukuro yaOscar Wilde muGaiety Theatre muDublin.

Kuita zvepabonde

Izwi rinogona kunge rakatanga kugadzirisa kuwana hukama hwepabonde sekare kare sezana remakore rechigumi nemana, kunyange zvakadaro rwakange radziwana kubva kune gumi nemanomwe gumi nechinomwe Pakunopera kwezana remakore rechigumi nemanomwe, zvakare rakange rawana kukosha kwe "kushungurudzwa kune zvinonakidza nekudzivisa", kuwedzera yezvakakosha zvikuru zve "kusava nehanya" zvinoratidza "kusagadziriswa nemitemo yezvetsika". Mukadzi ave ari nyanzvi mudzimai womukadzi hufeve, uyewo pfuma yemukati. Kushandiswa kwoungochani neni "ungochani" kwaive kuwedzera kwekushandisa kwayo kune hupombwe: mukomana woungochani akazviratidza kuva mukomana wechidiki kana murume ari kushandira vatengesi vevarume.

Saizvozvowo Ikoko Kunoratidzwa Kuti Ive kati inobata chifeve murume anodzidziswa muHobo, vatsigiri vekuchengeteka uye kudzidzisa uye kazhinji kuchinjana zvepabonde. Kushandisa ungochani kwaive kuwedzerwa kuwedzera kwechirevo chechirevo chechirevo ichi che "musingatauri uye asingabvumirwi", izvo zvakaratidza chido chokubvisa zvinowanzoitika kana kuti zvinorumbidzwa zvepabonde.Ukushandiswa uku, kwakanyorwa kubva ku1920s, kwaive kunouya mberi kwezana remakore re20, asi zvakange zvichishandiswa kushandiswa kuratidza mararamiro emararamiro asina kutenderwa, '' kubva pane imwechete-inowanzonzi "gayana Lothario", kana mukati mezita rebhuku uye firimu Gay Falcon (1941), iyo inofungidzira kuti muchengeti wechikadzi Chinyorwa chepakutanga ndeche "Gay".

Zvakanaka kuBhe kunonzi "gay", kureva kuti aive akarovedzwa uye pasina mari yekubhadhara, pasina chimiro.Kushandiswa uku kunogona kuiswa kune vakadzi.British Comic-strip Jane, pakutanga akabudiswa mu1930s, Zvechokwadi Haasi kureva izvozvo, ungochani hwakatumidzwa nokuda kwerusununguko rwaro rwehupenyu hwehupenyu nehuwandu hwekakomana (kunyange kuwedzera.

Kunyange Pasi kubva kwaGertrude Stein's Miss Furr & Miss Skeene (19-22) ndiyo ingangodaro ndiyo yakatanga kushandiswa kushandiswa kwezwi iri kuti ione nekubatana kwevanhukadzi.

Vakanga vari ... gayana, vakadzidza nyaya shomanana iyo Nyaya mukuva gayana, ... ivo vaigara vachiita zvepabonde.

-? Gertrude Stein, 1922

Izwi rakaramba richishandiswa kushandiswa richishandisa zvinorehwa zvinoreva "zvisina hanya", sezvinopupurirwa nezita reGay Divorcee (1934), firimu yemimhanzi pamusoro pevakaroorana.

Kurera Mwana (1938) ndiyo yaive yefirimu yekutanga yekushandisa izwi rokuti Gay muchirevo. Muchitarisiko icho Cary Grant anhu hwake hupfeko anotumirwa kune vanochenesa, anomanikidzirwa kuti ape hanzu yemukadzi inopetwa-feather. Apo mumwe munhu anotsvaga pamusoro pomupfeko wake, anopindura achiti, "Nokuti ndangobva ndaenda gayana kamwe kamwe!" Sezvo iyi yaiva firimu yakawanda mune imwe nguva, kamwechete kushandiswa kweshoko iri kureva kupfeka kupfeka (uye, nekuwedzera, ungochani) huchange husingazivikanwi kune vakawanda vemafirimu, mutsetse unogonawo kushandurwa kuti unoti, "Ndangosarudza kuita chimwe chinhu chisina kunaka."

Kusvika ikozvino, Kutaura Kwokutanga kwakawanika Kudzoka mu1950 pamutsara weGay sezita rinotsanangurwa kuti uwane ungochani wakabva kuna Alfred A. Gross, munyori mukuru weGeorge W. Henry Foundation, uyo akati kubva muna June 1950 nyaya ye SIR publication : "Handisati ndasangana nevanoita zvoungochani. Vane nzira yekuzvitsvakira sevanhurume asi shoko iri rinonyadzisa.

Dzokera kune kunyanya gay

Pakati pezana remakore re20th, rakanyatsogadziriswa neGay reKutaridzira mararamiro uye mararamiro ayo zvakananga, ayo aive aine chirevo chekuremekedzwa, kuoma, uye kugungano, akanga awana zvakananga zvese zvehutano. Muchiitiko chevanhu vanoita zvepabonde, zvinowedzera zvekunyengedzera uye kuratidzira mune zvipfeko ("nguo dzechigamba") zvakaita kuti isangane nekambani uye kushanda zvakanaka. Iko kushamwaridzana kwakabatsira kuti kuderedza muhuwandu hweshoko iri rinosanganisira zvarinoreva iye zvino zvaive zvambovharirwa kune zvishoma-tsika. Gay ndiyo yaiva nguva yakasarudzwa kubvira pane zvimwe zvinyorwa, zvakadai sedheer, zvaitenda kuti zvinoseka. Vanhu vanoita zvepabonde vanoonekwa sevanonyanya kurapwa, sezvo hutano hwepabonde ikozvino hunowanzonzi "ungochani" hwaiva panguva iyo chirwere chepfungwa chinowanikwa muChirwere chekuongorora uye Statistical Manual yeMental Disorders (DSM).

Pakati pezana remakore 20th Britain, uko varume vanhurume nevakadzi vaive vasina kutenderwa pamberi peMutemo weNyaya dzepabonde 1967, kuti vaone chimwe chekuti gayari yaionekwa seinovhiringidza uyewo kupomerwa kwezvakaipa. Mukuwedzera, hapana rimwe remashoko rinotsanangura chero chikamu chehuchani, chakanga chichifungidzirwa chakakodzerwa nekuremekedza rusununguko. Nokudaro huwandu hwehufumi huve hwakajaira kuisa chiratidzo paunenge uchifungidzirwa ungochani. Mienzaniso inosanganisira vakadzi ve "sporty" uye "vashandi" vechidiki, nekunetseka mupfungwa pane chimwe chirevo chisina mhosva.

I-1960s yakaratidza kuti kuchinja mune zvakakosha zvakanyanya Izwi iri gay kubva kune "risina hanya" mune zvezvino "ungochani". PaBritish Comedy Drama firimu Ratidzai Kumatenga! (1960), inotungamirirwa naLillion Gilbert, kune antics yeBritish Army yekutsvaga mutsva muHondo Yenyika II, pane chaipo chiitiko munzvimbo yehutsotsi iyo hupenyu huri kutarisana naBenny Hill hunoratidza chigunzva chekudya kwekudya. Anotanga, "Ndinoda kurongedza ..." panguva iyo imwe shamwari yekudya, yakaitwa naSidney Taller, inopindira "Ndianiko?" , kuratidzira chirevo chekuroorana. Bhenny Hill unhu unopindura, "Kwete kwauri kutanga, iwe hausi wandiri." Ipapo anowedzera kuseka kunyunyuta, "O, ini handizivi, iwe uri kungoita zvepabonde pane kunyarara."

Kubva ku1963, manzwiro matsva emutsara uyu akazivikanwa zvakanaka zvakakwana Man-Hunting. Saizvozvowo, Hubert Selby, Jr. mubhuku rake re1964 rekupedzisira rekubuda kuBrooklyn, anganyora kuti "unhu hwakakodzwa pakuva ungochani nekufunga zvekunzwisisa uye zvekuita zvakanyanya kune avo (kunyanya vakadzi) Avo vakanga vasina gayana ..." Gare gare mienzaniso yekutaura kwavo kwekutanga kweShoko iri kushandiswa mune zvakakurumbira tsika inosanganisira hurukuro inonzi 1966 Animated TV mutsara Flintstones, umo vatariri vanovimbiswa kuti "vachava nemakore ekurara." Hemikiti yaHNUMX Herman inoti "Hapana Misi Mazuva Ano", iyo yakashandurwa kuva Top Ten yakakonzerwa neUnited States neTop Forty yakabva kuU.S., yaisanganisira rwiyo "Hapana mukaka nhasi, haisi nguva dzose zvakadaro; kambani iyi yaiva gayari, taizoshanduka usiku."

Muna June 1967, musoro wekuongorora kweBeatles 'Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band album mukati mepepanhau reBritain zuva rega rekuti, "Dombo redu rinoita kuti tive netariro yekufambira mberi pakati pevimhanzi-mhando nevana vavo veLP". Asi mugore irorochete, The Kinks yakanyora "David Watts". zviri pachena nezvechikoro chekuchiva, rwiyo rwakawedzerwa runoshandiswa sechijoke joke, sezvakabatana muJon Savage "The Kinks: The Official Biography", zvichibva pamusana wezita racho vakatora zita rayo kubva kune ungochani unotsigira kuti vainge vasangana neUnited Nations sangano vakanga vane rudo nokuda komunyori weRay Davies mukoma wekuyaruka; saka saka mitsva "iye ari murume wesimbe uye asina hanya" inopupurira kusanzwisisika kwezvakaratidzwa panguva iyoyo, nechokukosha kwechipiri zvakajeka chete kuvanhu vanoziva. Sekupedzisira 1970, '' chikamu chikuru cheMadonna The Virgin Blessed Virgin | Madonna | Jewessess | Jewess | mama | mubereki wechikadzi} Tyler Moore Show inosanganisira zvakajeka Mary Richards 'pasi pedovakidzani, Phyllis, breezily kududzira kuti Mhandara Yakaropafadzwa iri, age 30, achiri "ungochani uye achiri muduku."

Pane kunyanya kunetseka kuti ungochani hunogona kunge huri hunove uchitaura kuti gay rinomiririra "Zvakanaka Sezvauri", zvisinei pasina uchapupu hweizvi: chirevo chakasikwa sezvinodiwa eymology.

Ungochani

  • Kuita zvepabonde, ruzivo, mufambiro
  • Nyaya dzepamusoro: Kuratidzira zvepabonde, Kuziva zvepabonde, nekuita zvepabonde hwevanhu

Iyo Psychological Association inotsanangura mazano ezvepabonde se "chimiro chinogara kwenguva refu chepfungwa, rudo, kana zvido zvenyama kune varume, vakadzi, kana kuti varume vanoita 2," vachifamba "pamwe chete nenguva, kubva pakukwevedza kwakasiyana kusvika kune chinopesana nehutano nekunakidza chete zvakajeka zvepabonde ". Kuita zvepabonde kunogona kuve "kugoverana maererano nemhando mitatu: hutano hwepabonde (kushandisa manzwiro, rudo, kana kuti zvekuita zvepabonde kune avo vanoita zvepabonde dzimwe nguva), gay / lesbian (vane manzwiro, rudo, kana kuti zvepabonde kune vanobatana nevakadzi ), uye atomic nhamba ye83 zvepabonde (kuwana manzwiro, rudo, kana kuti hukama hunokwezva varume nevakadzi). "

Maererano naRosario, Schrimshaw, Hunter, Braun (2006), "kushanduka kwevakadzi, ungochani, kana bonde (LGB) zvekuita zvepabonde kunobatanidza labyrinthine uye dzimwe nguva nzira inotambudza.kusiyanisa kune nhengo dzemapoka akasiyana-siyana (semuenzaniso (tsika uye marudzi evanhu vakawanda vanoratidzika sevanokurudzirwa mune imwe nzvimbo inowanikwa nevamwe vanobva kwavari vanodzidza huzivi hwavo hunosimbisa uye hutsigira humwe huripo.Asi panzvimbo iyi, vanhu veLGB vanowanzosimudzwa mumharaunda iyo isingazivi kuti inonyanya kuvenga kune zvekuita zvepabonde. "

Mutori wenhau weGritain kodzero yemakororo Peter Tatchell akambotaura kuti izwi rokuti gay rinongova tsika yemutauro inoratidza kurarama kwemazuva ano ekuita zvepabonde pakati pevanhu vakapa, uye vachiti "Queer, ungochani, ungochani ... munguva pfupi, rekuti zvose zvichingozivikanwa kwenguva pfupi. Mamwe manheru, hatigoni kuvada vamwe. "

Kana mumwe munhu achiita zvepabonde nemumwe wehutano hwakakodzana asi hazvizvizivikanwi sevamwe varume, mazwi akadai sekuti 'akavharwa', 'akangwara', kana kuti 'bi-curious' angashanda. Kusiyana neizvi, mumwe munhu angasimbisa sevamwe varume vasati vaita zvepabonde nemurume mumwe chete. zvisarudzo zvinogamuchira unhu sevamwe varume, asi kusarudza kuva mhirizhonga, kana kuti kutarisira unyanzvi hwekuita ungochani. Uyezve, munhu ane hutano anogona kuwedzera zvakare se "ungochani" asi vamwe vanogona kufunga nezvevakomana nevarume nemurume nemukadzi kuti vashandurwe chete. kazhinji zvinoreva kurega kukanganisa, kana kukumbira kufarira kunyange pasina basa.

Terminology

Vamwe vanoramba Izwi reGayana sevanobatana nehutano-mazita semugumisiro weVanhu vanozviwana zvakanyanyisa kliniki-kurira; zvisinei ivo vanotenda kuti inotarisirwa zvikuru pamabasa epanyama panzvimbo yekudanana kana kukwezva, kana zvakare saizvozvi panguva ino chiito chepabonde chaifungidzirwa nedambudziko repfungwa. Zvinoshamisika, izwi rokuti ungochani rinorambwa nevamwe sezita rekuzivikanwa-sezvo vakanzwisisa tsika dzechimiro kuti dzisingafadzi kana nekuda kwezvirevo zvisina kunaka zvekushandisa slang izwi.

Zvinyorwa zvemafashoni, sezvinoonekwa neAssociated Press, zvinoshungurudza gay pamusoro pehuchani:

Gay: inowanzofananidza varume nevakadzi vari kutevedzana neAnguva yakafanana, kunyange zvazvo vanyengeri ndiyo nguva yako yevasikana. inonyanya kuzivikanwa pamusoro pehupombwe kunze kwezvinyorwa kana mamiriro ekuita zvepabonde.

Iko Ndivo Vanoramba kuti izvo zvinoreva zvikonzero zvimwe Kusiri kunzwira tsitsi kana kusingadikanwi. Munyori weAlan Bennett uye nyanzvi yepamusoro-soro André Leon Talley vakafanana nevamwe vanobva nenzira iyo pamwe chete nehutano yakazaruka uye kunze kwevarume vakuru vanoramba kutumidzwa ungochani, vachizviwana zvakanyanya kudzivirira uye kuvatsinhanisa.

Guta Local Local Gay. LGBT mudunhu

Kutanga mukati mukati meZ1980 muUnited States, Mushandirapamwe unofunga waive uchienderera mberi, mukati meiwo wakanga uchizivikanwa sevanhu vanoita zvoungochani, kuti vauye netsanangudzo yehukodzani kune makambani emachechi evanhu vanoita zvechikadzi, izvo zvakabatanidzwa mumadzimai nemadzimai vanoita zvechinguvana, uyewo kushandisa mazwi chaiwo evarume vanoita zvechani nevarume vanoita zvepabonde, kana kunyange vanoita zvepabonde / gayana pavanotaura pamusoro penharaunda iyoyo. Masangano akadai seNational Gay Task Force yakava National Gay uye Lesbian Task Force. Zvaive zvakakosha kuti L yakabva, zvichiita kuti L iite shure kwechiito cheG ichi sechiratidzo chinotevera chekutonga kwevarume pamusoro pevasikana, kunyange zvazvo vakadzi vachida kushandisa musikana uyo ungochani. Kubva pane gumi nemapfumbamwe makumi mapfumbamwe makumi matatu nemakumi mapfumbamwe izvi zvakateverwa pamwe chete nedzimwe simba rakafanana pamwe chete kusanganisira zvinhu zvakadai sezwi rinonyanya kureva kunze kwokuti kuwedzera kwe transgender, bisexual, intersex, uyewo vamwe varume nevakadzi, vanomiririra mhirizhonga yemukati pamusoro pe zviduku zvepabonde zvakaguma chikamu chechokwadi chaiyo kodzero dzevanhu. Nhau dzekambani dzakagamuchira zvishandiso nekushandiswa, zvichienderana nekuravira uye muenzaniso wemasangano aya, sezvinomiririrwa mukati mezvinyorwa zvabudiswa nekutaurirana.

Descriptor

"R Isa" Gay Bar mu Seattle, Washington, United States.

Izwi Rokuita ungochani Ringafanirwa kushandiswa kushandiswa kutsanangura Matters akabatanidzwa nevarume, kana masangano ari chikamu chechi tsika icho chakataurwa. Nenzira yekufananidzira, tsanangudzo ye "gay bar" inoreva kuti ibha inogona kunge inowanzobatana nevarume vanoita zvepabonde, kana kuti inogona kunge isina imwe chikamu chevanhu vanoita zvepabonde.

Neyo kutsanangura chimwe chinhu, sechinhu chezvokupfeka, Zvinoratidza kuti inopisa kwazvo, kazhinji. Kushandiswa uku kunokurumidza kushanda kwechirevo ichi, asi, yakawana zvinyorwa zvinofungidzira kuti kushandiswa.

Shandisai zita

Mutemo woungochani wakashandiswa chete sechirevo Chirevo ichi chinoramba chichishandiswa kwezita zita rokuti "murume wechani" nokuti 1970 s, kazhinji kazhinji pahuwandu kune imwe nzvimbo isingazivikanwi, sezvinonzi "gays inopesana nemutemo iwoyo. "Kushandiswa kwakanyanya kunowanzobva kune mazita emasangano kusanganisira vabereki, mhuri uye shamwari dzevaLesbian uye Gays (PFLAG) uyewo vana ve lesbians uye gays kwese (COLAGE) inogona kushandiswa kureva vanhu, se" gay "kana kuti" maitiro maviri aivapowo zvakare, "asi izvi zvingaonekwa sekusemesa. Zvakanga zvichinyatsobatsirawo kubva kuBittle Britain unhu Dafydd Thomas.

Shanduro yepamusoro yekushandisa

Kana ichibatanidzwa nemafungiro anoseka (semuenzaniso, "iyo yakanga iri iyo Gay"), mutsara wehungochani ndihuwandu hwevanhu vakuru vaduku kubva panguva yakareba yekuparadzanisa ndeyekuchengetedza zvarinoreva.Kushandiswa uku kunoshandisa midzi yavo kushandisa zvose mutsara unowana maonero nenheyo nezvose zvinorehwa, mu 1970 s. Kutanga muZ1980s, uye kunyanya mumakore gumi nemapfumbamwe makumi mapfumbamwe, kushandiswa kwakafanana nokunyomba kwakava kwakawanda.

Izvi kushandisa izwi iri zvakarumbidzwa. Kunyange 2006 BBC kutonga kubva kuBhodi yeVakuru vehurumende mukati Mushandiso iyi Mukati Mamiriro ezvinhu aya naChris Moyle ari oga purogiramu yeRadio, "Handidi iyeye, ari gayana," anorayira "kuchenjerera pakushandiswa kwayo" nekuda kwechinangwa ichi:

"Izwi rokuti 'ungochani', kunze kwekushandiswa kureva kuti 'gay' kana kuti 'kusina hanya', kazhinji kacho ikozvino rinoshandiswa kureva kuti 'kusabatsira' kana kuti 'rap'. Izvi zvinowanzoshandiswa kushandiswa kwezwi pakati pevechidiki. Izwi rokuti 'ungochani' ... haafaniri kuva nehasha ... kana kuti vanoita zvemhirizhonga ... Vatongi vakati, zvisinei, kuti Moyle aingova kungofanana nekuvandudzwa kwekushandisa kweChirungu. ... Komiti ... "yakanaka pamwe nekuteerera mutsetse iwoyo mukati memamiriro ezvinhu aya "Vatongi vaidavira kuti mukutsanangura ringin'i yekutinhira se" ungochani ", DJ aireva kuti aifunga kuti''crap ', pane kuti' gay '.

BBC Bhodi reVatungamiriri

Vana, Kevin Brennan, uyo akataura mukupindura kuti "kushandiswa kusinganzwisisiki kwekutaura kwevanhu vanoita zvemasimba neHama Stream tvs" ndiyo:

"Kuno kakawanda Kunowanzoonekwa sebenign banter munzvimbo yekunyadzisa kunonyatsomiririra ... Kutsigira dambudziko iri nguva dzose kuwirirana mairi.Hofu rinotarisa nezita risingazivikanwi-kushevedza, kuratidzika nenzira imwechete sezvazviri kusarudzwa, kunongowedzera "Homophobia yakatangwa muBrithani pasi peshoko rokuti" homophobia isochani, "vachitamba zvinoreva zvakadzama zvezwi rokuti" ungochani "muhutano hwechidiki, pamwe chete nemanzwiro anozivikanwa ekuti kutaura kwevanhu vanoita zvekuita zvevanhu vanowanzovhiringidza pakati pevanhurume. Chisimba, vatsvakurudzi veYunivhesiti kuMichigan Michael Woodford, Alex Kulick naPerry Silverschanz, pamwe nemuprofesa weAppalachian State University, Michael L. Howell, vakashandura kuti kushandisa pejorative yeshoko rokuti "ungochani" kwaive kushungurudza.

Pfungwa ye "ungochani" uye kushandiswa kweMuenzaniso izwi rokuti "mweya miviri" haritauriki ne "LGBT Native America" ​​kana kuti "Indian gay" etymologically yakabva schwül (inopisa, inonaya), yakawanawo pejorative zvinoreva mukati mevechidiki tsika tsika, kushandiswa kwepurojorative kwakave kwakapararira kune dzimwe nzvimbo dzenyika.Pakati pevatauri vaduku, shoko rinoreva zvinoreva kusvibiswa (semuenzaniso, zvakaenzana nemarara kana benzi) kune kuseka-mwoyo kunoseka kana kusekwa (semuenzaniso, zvakaenzana kune vasina simba, mumiririri, kana akaremara.) Mukushandiswa uku, shoko rinowanzoreva "gay", nokuti rinoshandiswa, semuenzaniso, kutarisana nechimwe chinhu chisina upenyu kana chirevo chisingaoneki chinopesana. Nhamba yekuzvidza uye yakakakavadzana.

Anti Gay slogans pamwe nerunyararo zvose zvidzidzo, Zvinyorwa-mazwi, uye zvinyorwa zvinoshandiswa kune mamwe maitiro kana ungochani Maitiro ekuita zvepabonde zvekuita zvepabonde zvekare zvekuita zvevabonde, ungochani, zvepabonde, uye zveTransgender (LGBT) pachavo) Vanopesana kubva pane Avo vanotaura nezvezvinangwa zvekunamata. Vamwe vanotsanangura Izvo inovenga adresi.

Izwi rinouya nehurumende inheyo muHeterosexism, uyewo zvirokwazvo ichasimudzirwa neHodophobia, biphobia, uye transphobia.

Zvinyorwa izvi hazvirevi zvinyorwa zvese zvisinganzwisisiki Zvinoratidza kusawirirana kunoshandiswa kugovera kushorwa kwekodzero dzepamutemo dzeLGBT kana kuti kugamuchirwa kwevarume nevakadzi ve LGBT.

Mhedziso shomanana nedzidziso dzinopesana nemamwechete zvepabonde zvinokurudzira uye Kunyange kukosha kwekusabvumirana kune zvakasiyana kubva kune tsika kusvika kumagariro, Zviito zviri pachena munguva. Kunyanya kunetseka nekushungurudzwa kwevana kunogona kuva zvechokwadi chaizvoizvo dambudziko.

Rhetoric inogona kuuya pasi pechiratidziro chokuti ungochani hunoenda kune hwepakutanga hunokosha, kana ungochani unogona kunge uri weHerry Horse, kana kuti "unoparadza mhuri" uye vanhu.

Chiratidziro chakakwana chemaonero anopesana nevarume vanoita zvepabonde Anobatwa muUnited States panguva iyoyo (1964) inogona kuwanikwa kuRobert rekodhi rekodhi, Homosexuality uyewo Citizenship muFlorida.

Tarisa Ungochani uye Psych

Kunyange zvazvo sangano rezvechiremba raifarira chido cheSame-sex, ungochani hwakabviswa mu 1974 nekuda kwehutano hwepfungwa muDaagnostic uye Statistical Manual yeMental Disorders (DSM) sezvo isina kukurudzirwa nehutano hwakasimba hwehutano hwakasakwanisawo kuita zvinodiwa kurwara.

Pakava nekukakavara mukati mekusarudza. Zvisinei, zvichienderana nekunetsana kwakasiyana nedzimwe nhaurirano, kuchengetedzwa, nevamwe, The American Society for Defence of Tradition, Family and Property, unogona kuwana mhando dzezviito zvinoratidzirwa nemapoka evatsoropodzi vangave vatenda zvisikwa zvevanhu, zvakadaro semuenzaniso unhu hwemhando. Izvo zvinopesana nekutaura ndezvechokwadi zvinopesana "zvisina kusimba" kushandisa "zvakaipa", izvi ndizvo chete kugadziriswa kwechikonzero ichi kuti ungochani hwakashata (hwakafanana nekuuraya vanhu), zvichida zvisingaytiki.Izvinetso zvakati zvakaoma pamwe nehuwandu hwemamiriro ezvinhu aya "masikirwo" uyewo "zvisingayti" izvo zvinogona kushandiswa nenzira dzakawanda.

Kwete Chekuita kupesana kweungochani muSan Francisco

Zvose zvemachechi evose Abhurahamu pamwe nevamwe. Machechi akawanda echiKristu uye vazhinji vevaKristu vazhinji vanozvimiririra (semuenzaniso, '' Pat Robertson naJerry Falwell) vanotaura maBhaibheri anotsigira kuti zvepabonde zvepabonde zvepabonde zvakafanana zvakashata. Varume ava neungano vanofunga kuti maitiro ehutano hwemhando dzepabonde uye zvepabonde zvepabonde (pamwe chete nehupombwe hwemhando dzakasiyana-siyana) ndezvipi zvehupombwe hunofanira kutungamirirwa. Izvo zviketani zvinowanzotaura zvechisimba uye kuvenga.

Ndinofanira kusimbisa kusimbiswa Kwatinofunga pamusoro pedu kuti tive nechibereko chechivi chako chinosanganiswa pamwe naKristu sekunzwira tsitsi kusina maturo kana kukanganisa. Tinokurudzira kuti Mutemo waShe, uyo wakadzinga chivi Adored mutadzi. Tinofanirwa kushingayra nekunonoka nekupa kune avo vanobatwa, kushumira zvavanoda uye kuvabatsira Matambudziko.

Mamwe machechi anoramba Mafungiro evanhu vanoita gay Kuona uye Maonero ehugochani sekuve nechimwe chinhu kune umwe neumwe uye chido chekuita chinogona kuitika kamwechete kwenguva pfupi. Zvinyorwa zvakasiyana-siyana zvinokakavara uye zvinopesana, semuenzaniso zvishomanana zvakanyorwa muchikamu chinotevera, zvinoshandiswa nevanopikisa ungano nevanhu, kunyanya kubva kuna Fred Phelps, muumbi wesaiti godhatesfags.com pamwe chete neWest West boro Baptist Church. Mamwe ungano, semuenzaniso Metropolitan Community Churches, anonyatsofunga kuti kuita zvepabonde chivi uye kazhinji chinoratidza.

Ungochani hunofanirwawo kutadza muIslam. Mune zvishomanana kuMiddle East inotaura, mabasa ehuchani unopomerwa nekupfuura. Nyika imwe chete iyo inobvuma hukama hwepabonde imwechete kuMiddle East ndiIsrael, asi ungochani huri pamutemo kune dzimwe nyika shomanana. Mukuwedzera kwaIsrael, mabasa ehutano akafanana anoshanda kubva kumaPalestine masuwa (West Bank) seC1951. Ungochani hunobatanidza vakadzi hunobvumirwa kune humwe hukuru hwechiIslam kune hurochani hunosanganisira varume vakuru.

Mune mamwe mazwi zvakanyanya, Mufundisi Jerry Falwell akarova ungochani (pakati pevamwe vakawanda) nekuita kuti magandanga arohwe muNew York neWashington, DC musi waSeptember 1 1, 2001, kuburikidza nekukonzera kushungurudzika kwevaIslam. Kumhepo yehurongwa hweterevhizheni yechiKristu The 700 Club, Falwell akaita chiziviso chinotevera (icho chaakazoregerera ruregerero): ''

"Ndinotenda Zvechokwadi kuti vahedheni uye vanobortionists uye vakadzikadzi uye varoyi nevadzidzisi vemadzinza avo vari kuedza nomwoyo wose kuzviita mararamiro mamwe mararamiro - ACLU, People For the American Way, vose avo vakaedza kushevedzera America- -Ndinoisa munwe mumeso avo uye ndichiti, "Makabatsira izvi kuitika"

VaBuddha vashomanana vanopomerawo. Nenzira Muenzaniso, muna 1997, 14th Dalai Lama Tenzin Gyatso akati, "Kubva muBuddha, maonero evanhu, varume nevakadzi-kune-vakadzi vanowanzoonekwa sekutadza kwepabonde."

VaBuddha vashomanana vanopomerawo. Nenzira yeMuenzaniso:

Pamusana pekunyanya kugadziriswa kwezvinyorwa zvemashoko 1 nyaya inogona kunge ichiti chirevo chokuti "AIDS Inouraya Fags Vakafa", chirevo chezviziviso izvi chirevo "Kurwiswa: Inouraya Bugs Dead", iyo tag inoshandiswa mumashambadzidzo evhidhiyo kune inonzi SC Johnson insecticide.

Chirevo chacho chakaonekwa mumakumi emakore ekutanga eAIDS kubva kuUnited States, nguva iyo chirwere chacho chave chava kuda kufa uye chakaonekwa nevanhurume. Chirevo chakabatwa nekutsanya sechimbo, chivande, kana chimwe chinhu chinonzi graffiti. Zvinonzi iyo motto yakatanga kuonekwa nevanhu kubvira pakutanga kwegumi nemapfumbamwe makumi mapfumbamwe, apo Sebastian Bach, mutungamiri wepamberi weiyo mashizha emukati weSikid Row, akaipfeka pahembe rakakandwa kwaari nevateereri .Indangariro ye "AIDS inoporesa" fags. "

Makwikwi akawanda akashandisa izwi rokuti ungochani. Izvi zvaive, semuenzaniso, wakawanikwa mumariro aMateu Sheppard, uyewo kuurayiwa kwechisimba, kunyange apo Fred Phelps nevateveri vake vakaiisa.

Sezvakatsigirwa neWorld Health Organisation, vasikana vane 50 muzana yevanhu vanorwara neHIV.

Izvo zvikamu zvezviitiko zveHIV izvo Zvingagumuchirwa kubva kuZvakakunda Uhukama hunochinja zvichienderana nehutano. Kudzokera kuRussia, imwe yezvirwere zveHIV mu2006 apo chaizvoizvo maitiro ekuparidzirwa ainzwisiswa, inenge hafu imwe yakave yakaguma nekuita zvepabonde zvepabonde, izvo zviyero zvave zvichikwira. Kakawanda 60 muzana yematambudziko akanga akanzi kuita zvepabonde pakati pevarume. MuCaribbean, zvinofungidzirwa kuti inenge 40 yezana yeHIV maitiro ndiwo mugumisiro wekuita zvepabonde pakati pevarume. Nezve 53 muzana yehutachiwana hweHIV mukati meUnited States, pa2005, yakaguma. Nyaya inonyanya kukosha yehutachiona hweHIV muCanada, mu2002, yakaverengwa nekuda kwepabonde pakati pevarume, apo pave kumadokero kweEurope iyo iyo yepamusoro yakaverengwa nokuda kwepabonde.

Slurs shomanana seDamana Boy, musungo, uye She-murume Capitalize kuti vakadzi vanotengesa varume vakuru. Pfungwa yeumwe munhu akasiyana nehupombwe hwako iyo haingatenderani nehupombwe hwavo yakanyengedzwa pamusoro penzira inonyadzisa munhu inofanirwa kuva yenziko. Nokuda kweizvi, mukupindurwa kune imwe Inokurudzira motokari yekurwisana nekusarura pamusoro pezvakawanda zvekugara, Aimbova Arkansas Gov. Mike Huckabee Akatumira shoko iri kune rimwe reNational Broadcasters Convention panguva yake yose ye 20-16 kuhofisi yake: ''

Tiri muguta neguta tichiona mitemo inotaura kuti Mwana wako pachake, paanenge achipinda mumba mudzimba angangodaro asina kugumburwa, saka kana munhu akakwazisa ikoko uye zvakare iwe haugoni kugumburwa Paanogona mumwe munhu kunzwa. Ndinoda kuti ndakarayirwa nevamwe kuti kare ndakanga ndambove kuti ndave ndainzwa semusikana sezvo yakasvika Nguva yekupfura mvura mu PE. Ndinonyatsoziva kuti ndingangodaro ndakawana mudzimai wangu.

Huckabee Anofanirwa kuratidza "kuti kune chimwe chinhu chakashata chakakanganisika pamusoro pekumanikidzikisa kuderedzwa kwevatungamiri ve LGBT, sekuru Rebecca Isaacs, uyewo mutariri weEffalty Federation, iyo yakataura mumak mail kune The Huffington Post:" Munhu wose anoda kushandisa nzvimbo yokugara uye munhu wese anofarira nezvekuchengetedza uye wega. Mashoko aVaHuckabee anobatsira kune mamiriro ezvinhu umo, pasinei nekubudirira kwezvino kuonekwa, vanhu ve transgender vanoramba vachitarisana nematunhu akakwirira ekusarura uye chisimba.

Kune Anti-transgender misoro. Roffee uye Waling yakatangira kudarika LGBTIQ + network, pave kuchiri kuve nekuvhiringidzika kukuru pamusoro peizvo izvo varume nevakadzi vanogona kuzviona, uye izvi zvakare zvinopesana kune vamwe vanhu. Iyi kuvhiringidzi kunobatsira pakuita nekufungidzira kwatino iye zvino tine mafambiro anotenderera mukati memunharaunda uye kuzvidya mwoyo.

Kuvhiringidzika uye Gay-bashing kunoshungurudza mumuviri kana kumashoko Kupesana nemumwe munhu anonzwisiswa nechisimba chekuita ungochani, ungochani, transgender, murume nemudzimai, somuenzaniso varume vanoita zvepabonde.

Kunyangwe kubvisa "kunogona kuva chiitiko chaiye, uyewo chimwe chete.Kushandurwa kwemashoko kunogona kushandisa kutsvaga, slurs, kutyisidzirwa, uye kwechokwadi kana kutyisidzira chisimba.Icho chinosanganisira zvinyorwa zvakati zvisizvo uye zvinogona kuitika.

Gayano inosanganisira zviito izvo zvinangwa uye zvisina-kutsamwisana kune anotambura, zvinongororwa mabasa nevanhu vakawanda kune mumwe munhu, pamwe chete nekusawirirana kwesimba zvakange zviri mupfungwa kana muviri. Mhemberero dzakadai sokudzvinyirira mhirizhonga, kudzvinyirira kwevabonde, pamwe neyeer bashing zvakaumbwawo.

Gay-bashing yakaitika kwemakumi emakore ikozvino uye inotakura nhasi. Hondo yekuAmerica kuUnited States yakanga yakanyanyisa zvakanyanya kumapera ekupedzisira kwe1940s uye kutanga kwe1950s, apo vazhinji vevanhu vanoita zvepabonde vakanga vakamanikidzwa kubva kuvakuru vakuru vehurumende nemapurani kuiswa kubva kuvaMutungamiri Harry S. Truman naDwight D. Eisenhower.

Lavender Scare Inobatsira inobatsira moto kubva kuRot Scare. Muhurukuro yakafanana, masochani uye makomonisiti vave vachifungidzirwa. Makirasi maviri aya aionekwa seashoma-tsika dzakange dzakavanzwa nezvisungo zvekuzvipira, sciences netsika dzemitemo, nemasangano avo emasangano. Makirasi maviri aya aifungidzirwa kuti ave munzvimbo dzawo pachake akashungurudzwa kana asina simba. Uye makirasi ega ega aitenda kusingadi Mwari uye unzenza. Vanhu vakawanda vakatenda kuti makirasi e2 akashanda kuparadza mapurisa.

Akakundawo uye haana kuita izvi, kunyange zvazvo akabatana naye, akatengesa maitiro ake pamakomunisti muhurumende inopomera masochani muhurumende dzehurumende. Achishandisa makuhwa akaunganidzwa naDrew Pearson, munyori weNevada akanyora kuti McCarthy uye mukuru wezano rake, Roy Cohn, vakapedzisira vaita ungochani. Hapana zvakare McCarthy biographer akaita kuti zvive nyore.

Queer bullying

Eagle Canada yakamhanya mubvunzo wepamusoro kune 3700 Chikoro chikuru chevadzidzi muCanada pakati peDecember 2007 naJune 2009. Mhedziso yekugumisa pamusarudzo uyu, "Chikoro Chese Chese MuChikoro Chese", chakatumirwa mu2011, chakawana kuti 70 muzana yevadzidzi vanobatana vakacherechedza "ivo vanoita zvevakomana" zuva rega rega muchikoro, uyewo 48 muzana yevakabvunzwa vakawana "fagot", "lezbo" uye "Dyke" zuva rega rega.58 muzana zvakanyanya 1400 yeavo 2400 vadzidzi vari kuita sarudzo yeEGALE vakazarura mafungiro Uyezve, EGALE yakafukura vadzidzi vekoroji zvichida zvichida havana kukonzera bhobia nehutera hwevanhu kana kuti transphobia dzakaguma dzichiziva nezvazvo. mukati memusoro wekushungurudzika kwekunzwira tsitsi kwevanhu vekushungurudzika kwevanhu kunoreva kuti avo vangave vasingayti zvakananga kusangana nehutano hwemagariro (munyaya iyi, kudheerera) nguva dzose vanobvisa zvinetso zvaro uye naizvozvo zvinogona hazvo hazvo kupindura zvinogutsa zvinoshandiswa nemunhu anotarisana nemagariro evanhu.

EGALE, Pamwe pamwe nekudzidza kwakatora kwakawana vadzidzisi neChivako chehurumende zvingangodaro zvakagadziriswa kubva kumurume.

Graffiti iri pamiganhu yenyika uye yekoroji, uyewo yega yega "chimiro chekugara", ichiri chimwe chimwe chekunyadzisa.

Vamwe vatsvakurudzi vanoreva kusanganisa huduku Sezvavanokwanisa kutarisana nemigumisiro yeMweya mune zvekutsvakurudza chero kupi zvako pamusoro pekunyadzisa.

Kuongorora kuongororwa kweSeventy Eight makumi maviri nemashanu kuvakomana Vakapiwa mune zvikoro gumi nemaviri kuLondon, England pakati pe1998 ne1999 vakaratidza kuti vezvematongerwo enyika vakanga vashandisa kuti "gay" kuisa mukomana anotevera nenzira yakarongeka inoreva kuti mutongo kubva "joke chete", "kungofanana chete" uye zvishoma nezvishoma kuzivisa kwekuonekwa kwepabonde. Nyanzvi yezvemagariro eAmerican Michael Kimmel uyewo nyanzvi yezvepfungwa dzeAmerica Gregory Herek akanyora kuti varume vanoita ruzivo rwekuziva kwavo uku hukama uye izvo zvinogona kunge chaizvoizvo kungozvidza mukadzi uyu nekunyengedza zvakakosha uye yevakadzi gay. Kuvaka pamusoro pekufunga kwekuzviparadzanisa pachavo vamwe vatsvakurudzi vanoreva kuti izvi zvinokonzera kukanganiswa kwevakadzi uku kunogona kuva misogyny. Nyaya idzi dzakaongororwa paC2007, apo nyanzvi yevanhu veAmerica CJ Pascoe yakatsanangura izvo zvaanofanotaura kuti "fag huru" mune chikoro chesekondari cheAmerica mumabhuku ake, Dude, Uri Fag.

Vakomana nevarume vanoita zvepabonde nevakadzi vanoita zvekuda kunyora kudheerera. Muna 1 kudzokorora kwakatambura kusingadikanwi uye kuwedzerwa kunogereraniswa.

Zvikonzero Zvokumanikidza Kudheerera

Vakomana nevanhurume nevanhurume vanoita zvepabonde vanogona kuumba Mhando dzakashata dzehutsinye uye kushungurudzika sezvo vachikwira kumusoro. Chaizvoizvo, 71.4percent ye LGBT vagari vese vanosangana nekurwadziwa Denda (MDD). Kune vanhu veGGBT, MDD inogona kuguma kubva kune imwe yeavo Pashure: kukumanikidza kugadzirisa, kuzvidzora, kushoma kuderedza Mhuri kurambwa, chisimba, kukurudzirana kwevamwe, nekurera vana.Hondo uye kuzvidzora kunofamba pamwechete. Pane imwe nguva munhu weGGBT Anotaurirwa chaizvo kuti kufara nezvinhu zvipi zvingayta sezviri kutarisa, zvinounza mararamiro mukuzviremekedza kwavo. Apo mazwi anogadzirwa nevanhu zvavanoita seAdore, nezvimwewo,. inotanga kuvasika ivo vanonzwa vachinetseka. Izvi zvinoita kuti vanzwe sokuti Kana Havana kunaka izvo zvavaive. "Kuuya-kunze" Zvechokwadi inorongedzerwa Izvo zvinoshandiswa kuparidzira kamwe kamwe murume weBGBT anobatsira kuti inzwisiswe kuti zvechokwadi vave Gay, ungochani, etc. Kuuya panze kazhinji kacho Munhu anoshingayra neveLGBT yega, Ivo nguva dzose kuvimba nevabereki vavo Kana vakatarisana neimba yavakarambwa gare gare Vanouya kunze ivo vose vanofunga kuti havagamuchiri uye havadiwi. Vanogona kuva nzvimbo neizvi Kuenda kunononoka kwechivimbiso. Kuwirirana uye kusikwa kwevabereki zvakanyatsoratidzirana sevanhu vanofunga kuberekera pamwe chete nehumwe humwe hunokosha mune nzvimbo yekuzvimiririra, kunyanya apo inogona kuitika kubva kumiganhu ye LGBT. Munguva pfupi, musi waMarch 20-16, yakagamuchirwa nemutemo kune LGBT Vabereki kuti vagamuchire nyika dzose makumi mashanu. Kusava nekwanisi yekuita kuti Youngster wavo chaiwo angakonzera kukanganisa, zvisinei kana vakaramba kuti Kurumbidzwa kwakanaka, kwakagumbura. Kunyanya kuzvidya mwoyo Nezvokwadi Haisi iye mukuru pane zvikamu, zvisinei, hazvizoiti kuti munhu anzwe zviri nani zvikuru. Minority pressure inotsanangurwa sekutambudzika kunoitwa nevanhu veBGBB nekuda kwekuziva kwavo. Chisimba chinogona kukonzera chero munhu kuti ave mumamiriro ezvinhu Ezvo Chisimba chiri chaicho chaicho chaicho chaicho chekushungurudza, kushungurudzwa mupfungwa, kana kushungurudzwa. A Munhu Mumwechete Inogona kutambudzwa kusvika pamwero apo kusuruvara kwavo kunowedzera uye uye havachazovezve Nezve zvimwe zvinofadza. Izvi zvinoshandisika uye zvinoshanda pamwe chete Tough kudzivirira MDD.

Ramifications of queer bullying

Kudyidzana neveer kunogona kuita kuti vamwe vanorwara vanzwe sengozi uye vasingafari munyika yose. Kuvhiringidzika kunogona kuita kuti mudzidzi ataure nezvechikoro. Vamwe vanotambura vanogona kudzoka zvakare kuti vanzwe vakaora mitezo uye vanoita sangano semagetsi. Zvimwe zviitiko zvekudzingirira zvinogona kutanga kutarisa migumisiro yekudzidza kusakosha. Queer kana vadzidzi vanogona kuedza kupfurikidza sekuita zvepabonde kuti vasiye kumanikidzira. Kupfuura kunosunungura mudzidzi kuburikidza nekutsigirwa, uye nyaya kana kubvunza vadzidzi, vanotarisira kubatana. Vakuru veUnited Nations sangano vanoedza kupfuura zvakare vangave vachinzwa mafungiro anoratidza manzwiro uye kuratidzira manzwiro, pamwe nekuedza uku. Queer uye kubvunza vechidiki vane chirwere chechiropa vane kupararira kukuru kwekemikisi zvisina kunaka uye zvirwere zvepabonde nehutachiona hweHIV, izvo zvinogona kuenderera mberi kusvika pakukura. Kudzvinyirira kweveer kunogona kuwedzerwa kuonekwa sekuratidzwa kweiyo yer tutorial Ilan Meyer foni inoshevedza kuderedza kushungurudzika, kunogona kukonzera shamwari dzepabonde dzakasiyana-siyana dzemadzinza dzinodiwa kuti dzivepo mune imwe tsika yaive yakawanda zvikuru.

Kunyanya uye Kukunda maitiro ekutsvaga uye kusarura mukudzidzisa zvidzidzo

Kurwisana nehupombwe nehupombwe muhutano muzvirongwa zvingave zvichirondedzerwa sezviri pachena uye zvakajeka. kuratidzira kusarura uye kurwisana kunokonzerwa nehupombwe kunosanganisira zviito zvitsva zvinowedzera zvidzidzo zvinonzwa zvinyadziswa, kukuvadzwa, kusagadzikana kana kutyisidzirwa. vashandi nevezera rako havaratidzika kunge pasina mubvunzo kupindira kana vachiparidza zviitiko izvi. Izvi zvinoita kuti kuve nekugadzirisa zviito izvi zvinozoonekwa sechinhano chezuva nezuva kana imwe nzira yekugadzirisa kupesana pakati pevadzidzi vekuchikoro. kusarura uye hutsinye hwechirwere nehutachiona hunokonzerwa nechikoro - hunotaurirwa nekuda kwemashoko 'kushungurudzika kwekudzorera, kusanganiswa nekusakwanira kana kusipo, kutsigirwa uye kugadzirisa zvirongwa. Kusavapo kwemitemo inoshanda, kudzivirirwa kana mishonga inobatsira pakuvandudzwazve kana zviitiko zvikawedzera uye zvekare.

Zvinonzi 'chisimba chokufananidzira' kana kuti 'chiremera' zvechisimba, chinonyengera kudarika chisimba chinoratidza. Inoumbwa nezvimiro zvakapararira kana mafungiro ayo kazhinji anonzwa asinganzwisisiki kana echisikiro kumusha wevarsity, zvisinei izvo zvinokwanisa kana kukurudzira kufambidzana uye kufambisa, pamwe nekuenderera mberi maitiro anokuvadza. Zviratidzo zvekusarura zvakajeka uye zvechisimba zvepabonde zvinosanganisira:

  • Zvichienderana nehutano hwavo hwepabonde kana hutano chimiro / semuenzaniso, sayenzi yevakadzi vanoita zvepabonde nevarume vechidiki uye dhiyabhorosi yevakomana vevakadzi vega).
  • Iva nehurumende yakakura kana simba (semuenzaniso, pamwe nemafungiro eVGBTI vadzidzi vanobatwa sepakati pemuganhu uye kusakosha).
  • Kuvandudza kusagadzikana kunobatanidza nehutano hwepabonde kana Gender identity / kutaura mumapurogiramu epurogiramu kana mudzidzisi kudzidzisa, kufanana nemifananidzo uye nhaurirano (somuenzaniso, iyo inotaura pamusoro pebonde sekuita se "chimiro").

Nhamba uye mienzaniso

Chirongwa cheC1998 mune zvakanyanya kudzidza zvakagadzirwa neChina chevadzidzi nevadzidzisi, sangano reUnited Kingdom vashandi, shoko rokuti "gay" rakashumwa kuti rive rinonyanya kuratidza kushandiswa kwevashandi kunowanikwa nevanodzidza zuva nezuva.

Nezvishoma chikamu chiduku chevadzidzi vanoita zvepabonde uye vevabonde muBritain makorogi vakatambura nekudheererwa nevanhurume muC2007, pamwe nekudzidza kwakaitwa neunyanzvi Dzidzo Yenhengo ye LGB activist cluster Stonewall. zhinji iyo yakanga iri hangdog yakave yakashungurudza mashoko, makumi manachete aive akarwiswa, uye gumi nechinomwe kubva muzana vakange vamuvhundusa rufu. Izvo pamwe chete yakaratidza kuti vanopfuura mazana mashanu ezvidzidzo vakakundikana kupindura mutauro unosarura kuti vainyatsoonekwa mukati memukamuri, uye chete makumi maviri neshanu yevadzidzi vanga vaudza vadzidzi vavo kuti kusarura kudzvinyirira kwakanga kusina kunaka, kuratidza "chifananidzo chinoshamisa chekuwedzera kwavo kwekusarura kushungurudzwa kwakagoverwa nevamwe vadzidzi uye, nengozi, vashandi vekoroji ", pamwe nedzidzo dzipi dzakarongerwa nemhando yakadaro mu2012 dzakashuma kuti makumi mapfumbamwe evadzidzi vakanga vasina cheaching pavanodzivisa kusarura kusarura.

Mutengo wekuzviuraya wakakwirira pakati pevanhu ve LGBT. Zvichiitika mukati mekudzidza kumwe kwakapiwa neforuti Dzidzo Yenhengo yeLGB yemusangano weWorldwall, kuongorora kweterevhizheni kunofanirwa kuti makumi manomwe kubva kune mumwechete wevakadzi vanobatana nehurumende yeUnited Nations inozivikanwa se LGBTQ, uye makumi mashanu nemasere ezana yevarume vakapinda musangano reUnited Nations rinonzi LGBTQ akanga afunga zvakanyanya nezvekuzviuraya. Muna 1985, F. Paris inogadzirisa kuti kuzviuraya nevechidiki vechirwere kunogona kusanganisira kusvika makumi matatu kubva muzana yevechipiri kuzviuraya mukati meNorth America nyika. Izvi zvinokonzera kuzviuraya ndiyo yechitatu inokonzerwa nekufa pakati pevechidiki vane makore 10 - 24, inopomerwa nehurumende yehurumende.

Mhosva

(Podlesny) vachipikisana nevatungamiriri pachikoro chake chepamusoro chepasimhuri yepamusoro muAshland, Wisconsin pamusoro pekuramba kwavo kupindira mu "kuramba vachirwisana neGay mumuviri nekutukwa nemashoko nevamwe vadzidzi" kune izvo zvaakange aiswa uye izvo zvakaguma mukurapa kwake.

Mateo Sheppard akanga ari chikwata chekudyidzana neyunivhesiti murume kuYunivhesiti yeAmerica yehurumende yeUnited Nations yakashungurudzwa uye yakafa muRamiamie, nyika yeAmerica muGregorian kalendari mwedzi 1998, zvichida kuvonga kune zvepabonde. Kufa kwake pakupedzisira kunokonzera kugadziriswa pamutemo unorwisa kushungurudza saMateu Sheppard naJames Byrd, Jr.

Mudzidzisi wepamusoro Derek Henkle akatarisana nekutarisana nevatungamiriri vekuchikoro akangoramba achishungurudzwa nevezera rake muReno, Nevada. Nharo yake pamusoro penharaunda yevarsity uye vamwe vatungamiri vakawanda vakatungamirira kune imwe nzvimbo ye 2002 mune imwe nzvimbo iyo chibvumirano chekuita marongerwo emitemo yekuchengetedza vakadzi vanoita zvepabonde uye vevabonde uye kubhadhara Henkel $ 451,000.

Damilola Taylor akarwiswa neboka revagari vemunharaunda yevane makumi maviri nemanomwe, 2000 muPeckham, South London; akazouraya kamwe chete akakuvadzwa nebhokisi rakaputsika mukati mehudyu, iro rakagura arteria chikadzi ndeye. BBC, Telegraph, Guardian uye mapepanhau akazvimiririra anorondedzerwa panguva iyo mumavhiki mairi mukati mukati meUnited Kingdom kubva kuFederal Republic of Nigeria uye nokudaro kurwiswa kwaakanga atambudzwa nekurohwa, kusanganisira mazwi okutsoropodza nekakawanda kwevakomana sangano rake. "Mumwe wacho akamuudza kuti akanga ari ungochani." Iye "angave akanzwisisa kuti sei akanga ari hangdog kuchikoro, kana kuti nei vamwe vana vakaseka 'gay' - kuti mutsara uyu hairevi zvachose mune chero rupi zvayo.Aifanira kurera amai vake chii'gay 'chaireva, iye vakati "Vakomana vanopika vachipika mavari vachitaura mazwi anotyisa, aya ndiwo mazita aanoita mazita ake. Amai vake vakanga vataura pamusoro pekudheererwa, asi vadzidzisi havana kuitora zvakanyanya." Akati vadzidzi vaifungidzira kuti mwanakomana wavo gay uye vakakunda iye weChishanu chekupedzisira.Mwedzi mumwechete kamwe chete kuurayiwa, baba vake avochete, "Ndakataura naye uye akanga achichema iye aiva hangdog uye pamwe chete achitumidzwa semazita. Akange ari kunzi 'gay'. "Mukati meNyika yezvematongerwo enyika 2 makore akazotevera, kamwe apo painge kusati kwave kusina kutongerwa mhosva yacho, Peter Tat gehena, chirongwa chekodzero dzevanhu, akati," Mazuva akazoitika mukuponda kwake kumaodzanyemba London muNove 2000that akaiswa pasi pechisarudzo nekushungurudza nekushungurudza, uye akabvunza kuti nei zviremera zvakanga zvarashaya izvi zvisati zvaitika uye kamwechete kufa kwake.

Muna 2009, Carl Joseph Walker Hoover, chikwata chechikwata chinonzi 11 ane makore ane makore makumi maviri nemashanu muSpensfield, Massachusetts, akazvisungirira nechidimbu chechigoni chemagetsi. Amai vake ivo vaaidzidza navo paye lyceum vakanga vane hangdog uye vaitaura saiye "ungochani" pane tsika.

Muna 2010, ungochani kubva kuCameroon yakabvumirwa kupotera mukati memukati kamwe kambani yaive yakarwiswa nejairo yechikoro chevanhu vakatsamwa muCameroon pakarepo pavakamuona achikanda murume wake. Mutungamiri weCommunication weCameroon, Issa Tchiroma, akaramba chirongwa chekushungurudzwa kwevanhurume.

Tyler Clementi akazviuraya paSvondo makumi maviri nemaviri, 2010, kamwe shamwari yake paRuthgers University paQT yakanyora kurara kwake kune mumwe murume.

Mumwe murume weC32 wemakore ane zvinhu, Scotland aiva hangdog uye akatambudzwa nemutungamiri wake, musimboti weguta, asati agadziriswa. Akazopomera sangano uye akakunda mubayiro we #120,000.

PaGororian kalendari mwedzi gumi namana, 2011, wechidiki wechiCanada Jamie Hubley, mwanakomana weOttawa komiti yemuguta wevose, Allan Hubley, akazviuraya apo akange avhara kwemwedzi mumwechete pamusoro pekudzivisa gayana kwaainge akatarisana naye mukirasi. Kuvhiringidzika kwakanga kwavamba pakutanga kweGwaro rechinomwe, nevadzidzi pabhazi raJamie vachiedza kuisa mabhatiri mumuromo wake semugumisiro wekunakidzwa zvikuru nekambambo yekucheka kwechikepe pamusoro peHockey.

Phillip Parker, mudzidzi weC14 ane makore ane chekuita gayana muGordonsville, Tennessee, akawanikwa afa paJan makumi maviri, 2012. Akazviuraya nekuda kwekunyadzisa gay. Baba vake, sangano reUnited Nations rinowedzerawo zita rinonzi Phillip, rinoti "Ndiyo baba vangu chaivo. ini chaizvoizvo ndinomuda. Ndinomutarira. Haafaniri kunge aida kuzvidzivirira iye pakupedzisira akadonhera paupenyu "pamuviri waiva tsamba, yakanyorwa kuti:" Ndapota ita kuti Pine Tree State ive amai ".

Kenneth Weishuhn, mutsva anobva kuSouth O'Brien kuchikoro chesekondari kuIowa, akazvisungirira pakarepo achinyanyisa kudzvinyirira, kutyisidzira kwekunyora uye kutyisidzira kufa mu 2012 mukati megaraji yemhuri yake. Kuzviuraya kwake kwave kwakasungirirwa munyika yose uye yakawanda mibvunzo.

Jading Bell, achiri muduku muLa Grande, Oregon, akarwisa Kuzviuraya nekurembera pakarepo achinyanyisa kudheerera pachikoro chake chesekondari mu2013. kamwechete nguva nguva basa raibviswa, Bell akafira kuchipatara che OHSU. Baba vake Joe Bell vakatanga kutenderera kuAmerica kuti vawedzere kuziva asi akabatwa uye akaurayiwa nenzira yeiyo motori pakati pese pakufamba kwake.

Mutemo

  • Mamwe mashomanana eUnited States akatsigira mutemo kuti Tackle kudzvinyirira masimba.
  • Murairo unorambidza kusarura pamusoro pevadzidzi kunotsigira zvepabonde nekuenzana kwevakadzi
  • Mutemo unorambidza Kusarura kune vadzidzi kunotsigira zvepabonde zvisiri nyore
  • Mutemo unorambidza Kudzvinyirira kwevadzidzisi kwakatsigira zvepabonde nekuzivikanwa zvepabonde
  • Mutemo wekuchikoro kana kuti mitemo yevanodzidza kuti kutaura kushungurudza kana kusarura kwevadzidzisi kwakaisa pfungwa panyaya dzepabonde nekuzivikanwa kwevakadzi
  • Mutemo wechikoro kana mitemo yevadzidzi vanoita kuti kushungurudzwa kana kusarura kwevadzidzi vatsigire zvepabonde chete
  • Mutemo unorambidza dzidzo yeChikoro chezvinetso zve LGBT nenzira yakanyanyisa
  • Murairo unorambidza Kudzvinyirira mujijiji asi haritauri makirasi ekudzivirira
  • Kwete mutemo wakafara Unorambidza zvakananga kudzvinyirira mumakoroji
  • Iyi dhipatimendi inoda kukura. Zvinogoneka kubatsira nekuwedzera kune izvozvo. (December 2010)

Nyika ye Illinois yakapa mutemo (SB3266) paJune 2010 Iyo inorambidza kudzvinyirira asi semhando dzakasiyana dzedzidzo mumayunivesiti.

MuPhilippines, vezvemitemo vakatsigira Republic Act No. 10627, seimwe nzira inonzi inonzi Anti-Bullying Act ye 2013. Kubva pane imwechete murairo, kudzvinyirirwa kwevanhukadzi nevakadzi kunotsanangurwa se? Chero chiito chinonyadzisa Kana chinokonzera munhu pamusana pezvaanonzwisisa kana chaiwo zvepabonde uye chiratidzo chekurara (SOGI)? ).

tsigira

Mukusangana nekukudziridza kuziva kwehuchani unobata uye mapoka ezvidzidzo akawanda anogadzirirwa kubatsira vanhurume nevakadzi veBBBT kubata pamwe nekusashandisa kwavo zvisina kunaka.

Kufadza Kunze kweUnited States Ive Izvo Zvaunowana Zvakanakisisa Project, Nokuti avo vateereri uye varume nevakadzi ve LGBT vanoita mafirimu eYouTube vachigovera mashoko ekutarisira kuti vave vachiri kuyaruka vanoita zvepabonde. The Safe Schools Coalition inopa zvigadzirwa zvevadzidzi vekoroji nevadzidzisi. Egale Canada inoshanda neLGBT kuCanada vateresi.

Nhungamiro inotevera ndeyezvinhu zvehuviri pakati pevarume. Kuti uwane Maitiro pakati pevarume, shanyira makiriniki ezvebonde zvebonde.

Tsanangudzo yeHadrian naAntonius

Kuita zvepabonde ndezvekuita zvepabonde pakati pevarume Vanoita zvepabonde nevarume (MSM), pasinei nehutano hwepabonde kana zvepabonde. Vanyori veiyi 1948 Reports Kinsey vanoti 37 muzana mumitambo yavo yakasangana neye gay rimwe chete. Uchapupu huri kuratidza kuti hutano pakati pevarume hunodzingwa mumasarudzo semugumisiro wehupenyu hwevanhu hunoda.

Varume vaviri vakabatanidzwa nekupikisa maitiro avo pakuratirana

Nhoroondo yekare, kurara kwepabonde kwave kwakabatana neWorld MSM, asi unofambidzana kusaita zvepabonde zvepabonde, uye inogona kutora chikamu mumuromo wepabonde, kufungira kana kuti chishuvo, kana kuwirirana kune imwe nzvimbo.MMSM inokwanisawo kutora mhando dzakasiyana-siyana dzepabonde dzomumuromo, somuenzaniso semuenzaniso fallsatio, tee-bagging, pamwe ne anglings. Tsanangudzo yeC2011 kubva ku Journal of Sexual Medicine yakawana migumisiro yakafanana yeUnited States uye varume vanoita zvepabonde. Kutsvoda shamwari mumuromo mako (74.5percent), zvepabonde dzomuromo (72.7percent), uyewo kubatana kwepabonde (68.4percent) ndiwo maitiro anowanzoitwa 3, pamwe ne63.2percent yezvidzidzo kuzvidzora 5 kusvika kune hutano hutano hwepabonde mukati mehupenyu hwavo hwekupedzisira .

Mumwe wevarume vanoita zvepabonde neVaKanana VaKanana vakasiyana vanogona kunge vanozivikaniswa nokuti iyo yepamusoro, kazhinji munhu anogona kuzivikanwa apo pasi, uye anogona kunge anonzi kushanduka. Kunakidza, kupera, kana kuti zvichida kunogona kuenda nehupombwe. Sezvo manzwiro anokwanisa kugoverwa nemishonga inopera panzvimbo yakakonzera, chigumo chinogona kuitwa kuburikidza nekupinda mukati nekusimudzirwa kwekenza yavo yekenza ye prostate. Tsvakurudzo inobva kuNational Survey yeHIV Health and Behavior (NSSHB) yakaratidza kuti varume vakura vanozviti vanozvimiririra kutakura nzvimbo yakasununguka kugadzirisa zvepabonde zvepabonde mukati mavo ekupedzisira vanowanikwa vangave vakakwanisa kuva nevanenge vachiita sevasgasm sevarume varume vakuru vakagamuchira insertive basa. A kuongorora sampuli vanhu vasina kuroorwa kana mukati meUnited States vakanangurira kuti matambudziko ekumhanya kwepamusoro akafanana pakati pevarume vakuru kune zvepabonde. Nekuremekedza kusava nehanya mune zvepabonde, kumwe kutsvakurudza kunoratidza, kune 24 muzana kune 61 muzana yevanhurume kana varume vanoita zvepabonde, kukanganiswa kwepabonde kunobata (kunonzi anodyspareunia) kunogona kuva humwe humwe hupenyu hunowanikwa nguva dzepabonde. Muchikamu chikuru (n = ~ 25,000) yevamwe varume vanoita zvepabonde veUnited States uye vanoita zvepabonde varume vakuru, zvinenge 86 muzana yevanhu vanochera mukati mehutano hwavo hwepabonde rekare vakarondedzera kupinda mukati mamiriro ezvinhu aya sekuve vaduku kana zvichida kwete nenzira ipi zvayo inokanganisa; anenge 5% akajekesa zvakanyanya kana zvakanyanya kuora mwoyo.

Munhu wokupinda pamusoro pekanakisisa angave ari "kumusoro" uye Murume anogamuchira kumativi ose kuruboshwe angave ari "pasi"

Mishumo Inofanirwa kuitika kwepabonde imwe yeMSM Ive yakasiyana pamwe chete nemamwe mapeji, mumakore. Chikamu chikuru chevarume vanobatanidzwa muupenyu mukuita zvepabonde. Ongororo imwe yevarume yakaratidza kuti zviyero zvakangofanana pakuongorora varume vanoda kuwedzera avo vavakaroorana navo kune avo vangada kushanda semudiwa. Vamwe varume vanoita zvepabonde nevanhurume vanofunga kuti hukama hwavo hunobvunzurudzwa nekugara muine mukomana panguva yepabonde.

Ikoko kune assortment. Fort inogona kuva yerudzi rwebasa rinozobatana nokukurumidza kutaura naye. Icho rudzi rwekugwinya. Fort inogona kunge inofadza kubva panguva iyo uye panguva imwechete inomutsa maitiro edzimai kubva kune avo vaviri vakaroorana sezvo inorega kuunza kupesana kunogutsa kunopesana ne frenulum guts pakapfuuriro pasi pemumwe nomumwe wega penile chikamu, kunze kwekuvhenekera kwenyama (nyamaus) kubva pamusoro wavo wepenis (glans penis). Gender ichiri chimwe chimwe chebonde chinogona kuitwa pakati peMSM. Kuchengeta (kuiswa kwehukama hwomunhu mumwe chete mune imwe yepamberi yemumwe munhu) kunogonawo kuitwa.

Kuita zvepabonde nzvimbo dzinogona kuita. Muna 1 kuongororwa kwe UK uye veAmerica vanopindura, kunyange vanhu vanoona nezvemari vanozivikanwa gayana vakaratidza nzira yekudzidzira, mamishinari, 6 9, anal anal oral (mune urongwa uhwu) vakanga vari nzvimbo dzavanofarira zvepabonde. MSM inogona kuwedzera kugoverana muBDSM kana kushandisa mabhizinesi. Kuongororwa kwenyika yose kuAustralia ne2001 kusvika ku2002 kwakawana kuti, kubva kumavhiki e12 vasati vasarudzwa, 4.4percent yevarume vanoita zvechani varume vakuru uye 14.2percent yevanhu vanoita zvepabonde vanoita zvepabonde zvakasangana neBDSM, uyewo 19.2percent yevanhu vanoita zvepabonde varume vakuru uye 36.4percent yevanhu vanoita zvepabonde varume vanoita zvepabonde zvinoshandiswa. Munhu asina mumiririri, '' mhinduro dzemibvunzo-based-based based around the conduct of American college students identified 24 percent of bi sex and homosexual men experienced experience together with spanking because being clinic. Pakati pevashandi vekurapa muNorth America, 6 muzana yevarume vanoita zvepabonde varume vakuru uye 17 muzana yevarume vakuru vekare vanodarika vanotaura kuti vakagamuchira marwadzo nekuda kwepabonde rekuita zvepabonde, pamwe ne5 muzana yevarume vanoita zvepabonde varume vechidiki uye 9 muzana yevarume vekunyoresa vakaratidza kushanyira basa iri. Maererano nesarudzo ye-on-line yepamusoro pevarume vakuru ve25,000 vanozviti vanozvinyengedza kana vashanduki, 49.8percent yakashandisa zvinotyisa. Varume vazhinji vakashandisa vibrator pakupedzisira kushandiswa kwekushandiswa munguva yekuyaruka (86.2percent). Mushure mekushandiswa kwese kufambidzana kwakawedzerwa, vibrator yakanga yaiswa mune zvepabonde (65.9percent) uye zvepabonde (59.4percent).

Imwe tsvakurudzo yakatsvaga vasina kuroora varume neMadzimai muUnited States vakaratidza kuti Nhamba dzekumhanya dzakagadziriswa neshamwari inozivikanwa zvakafanana pakati pevarume vakuru vese vanoita zvepabonde. Kutsvakurudza kunoratidza kuti MSM inonyanya kufarira kuti ibudirire uye inotarisa zvepabonde zvechokwadi kana kuti inogutsikana zvakanyanya sezvazviri chaizvo nekushandisa mumwe wako kana mumwe munhu wavanonyatsoda rudo naye. Izvo zvakaonekwa pane mumwe muenzanisi wemumiriri weavo vaimboita US douleur populace (9 1% heterosexual).

Nekuitawo zvekuita zvepabonde Shandisa cisgender varume, chirwere chepabonde chinogona kusanganisira kuwedzerwa kweanus yavo.

Utano hunokonzera

Nhamba yezvirwere zvepabonde (zvirwere zvepabonde) zvinogona kuguma kubva pane zvekuita. Munyika yose, kune 5 - 10 muzana yehutachiona hweHIV inokonzerwa nevanhurume vanoita zvepabonde vane varume vakuru. Muhuwandu hweWestern world hutachiona hweHIV hwakatumirwa nevarume vakawanda vanoita zvepabonde nevakomana kana vachienzaniswa neipi nzira yekufambisa. MuUnited States, vakaroorana nevarume vanoita zvoungochani vakaverengera 54 muzana yezviitiko zveHIV / AIDS uye 67 muzana yekutsvaga mu2014. Pakati pevanhu vane 5,164 vanozivikanwa sevari neHIV muKritani ku20-16, 54 yevamwe vaiva varume vanoita zvechani kana vanoita zvepabonde. Nyaya iyi inodzidzisa iri kuderera muLondon sezvinotaurwa neHurumende Health England pa20 17. Bata sirifu nyoro mbiri ye anus, yakakomberedza ziso, kana nzvimbo yakare. Kudzoka ku2006, 64 muzana yemamiriro ezvinhu eUnited States akapera. Kuwedzerwa kwehuwandu hwechirwere pakati peSMS kwakaonekwa kune dzimwe nyika dzakawanda. Siripi inofambira mberi mazinga ekusvibiswa kweHIV uye zvakasiyana-siyana, uye nokudaro sarudzo apo mukati meU.S. yakawana kuti hafu ye MSM nechirwere ine HIV. Dzimwe nhepfenyuro dzesayenzi dzinoshandisa shanho dzinobatsira dzakaratidza kuwedzera kwakadaro kunogona kurumbidzwa kunzvimbo dzakakwirira dzepabonde achishandisa kondomu imwe yeMSM, asi zvisingaverengeki zvidzidzo zvekushanda pamwe nenyika inosimiririra mumiririri akafukura maitiro ekushandiswa kwekondomu pakati peMSM yakawedzera, kwete kuderedza, asi mumakore gumi apfuura, uye pane kuve nekuderedza kuderera pamusana pekuita zvepabonde zvepabonde mukati mehutano hwezvepabonde hwepabonde reMASM rakabatikana.

Sezvakaitwa nechisarudzo cheUnited States, HIV, warts, uye syphilis zvave zviri zviviri zvakapararira pakati pevarume vakamborara nevanhurume (MSM) Pamusoro peFlip Side, Herpes inowanikwa pakati peMSM pane pakati pe MSW. Chlamydia, munhu Gonorrhea, virusi yaPapilloma, uye nhengo dzisina kuchera akacherechedza.

Kuita zvepabonde mumwe munhu ndeyeiye kuziva zvepabonde. Kurara kwevanhukadzi kunogona kuchinja kubva pane izvi, kana kunogona kuwirirana nehutano pamambakwedza. Nharaunda dzose dzinotora zvigadziro zvezvikwata zvepabonde izvo zvingayta sheyo yekusika kwavo kwehupenyu hwemumwe munhu mune zvehukama. Munzvimbo dzakawanda, kune kungova kupatsanurana nyore pakati pezviito zvepabonde zvakagoverwa kuvarume nevakadzi, zvepabonde kune izvo vazhinji varume nevakadzi vanoomerera uye izvo zvinosanganisira tariro yehupombwe nehukadzi mune zvese zvehutano uye zvepabonde: zvepabonde zvepabonde, hutano hunhu, uye zvepabonde kutaura. Vamwe vanhu kazhinji havatauri kushandisa zvese zvimwe zvezvinhu zvepabonde zvakakosheswa nekuda kwavo zvepabonde vakawanda vevanhu ava havasi bhinary, gender gender kana transgender. Iwe unogona kuwana nhamba dzinoverengeka dzine zvepabonde.

Era vatatu. Mushure mokunge uine hutano hwepabonde hwekodzero Era pamusoro pezviverengeka, inoedza kugovera zvakare, zvakare zvakaoma kuvandudza kunogona kuunza zvepabonde dysphoria. Zvose zvehutano uye zvehupenyu zvinoratidzirwa kuti zvigadzire zvisikwa zvayo.

Nguva yekusika

Ikoko Pane zvakawanda zvine maonero pamusoro pepabonde Mhando dzehupenyu, uye kuongorora niche yakaoma zvikuru sekushayikwa kwevana kwemashoko ekufananidzira kunoda vaparidzi kuti vagadzire nzvimbo kubva pauchapupu hwakananga. John Money yakarongeka vana vangave vane ruzivo rwezvekuita, uye uye kunyange kubatanidza zvimwe zvinoenderana zvepabonde, sekare kare sevhiki 18 kusvika makumi emakore 2; Lawrence Kohlberg anotaura kuti kuita zvepabonde hakusi kutarisana kusvikira panguva yakabvumwa. Zvinobvumirana kuti zera rinogadzirisa zvakasimba zvepabonde. Panguva iyoyo, vana vanogona kugadzira zvinyorwa zvebhizimisi mune zvepabonde uye kazhinji kusarudza pamusoro pematayini nemabasa anofungidzirwa kuti akakodzera zvepabonde avo sekuenzanisira kuvepa uye mapepa evakadzi, uyewo magare pamwe neimba yakaoma yevakomana), zvakatarisana kunyange zvazvo kazhinji vasati vaziva zvachose migumisiro yepabonde. Mushure mekuzvarwa kwehutano hwemadzimai kune zvakaoma kuvandudza nekuedza kugovera iyo kunogona kukonzera zvepabonde dysphoria. Gender individuality refinement inoramba iri muhombe huru, uye inoenda kumakore makumi maviri.

Martin naRuble vakatarisa nzira iyi yekukura Sezvikamu zvitatu: (inch) sevana vaduku uye vasati vasvika kuchikoro, vana vanoziva nezvezvinhu zvinorondedzerwa, izvo zvinogona kuverengwa zvikamu zvepabonde; (maviri) pamusoro pemakore e5, 5 - makore makumi maviri, humwe humwe hunobatanidzwa uye hunowedzera; (3) mushure mekunge "chikwata chekugadzikana," kusvibiswa kunobereka uye basa rinorondedzerwa rezvepabonde rinotarisana nepakati.Barbara Newman akachiparadzanisa kusvikira zvikamu zvina zvakasiyana: (1) kunzwisisa pfungwa yepabonde, (2) kusiyanisa nevanoshamwaridzana, uye (3) kuumba zvepabonde.

Maererano nemasangano eUnited Nations, hurukuro yekudzidzisa zvepabonde inosimudzira ruzivo rwakadai sepabonde uye kuenzana kwepabonde.

Kusiyana nekuenzanisa

Kunyangwe zvazvo kusikwa kwepabonde hakuzivikanwe zvikamu zvinoratidzirwa zvinoratidzirwa sechinoshandisika pakuzvishandura kwayo. Kunyanya, pfungwa iyo inonyanya kukoshesa pahuduku (zvikamu zvezvakatipoteredza) nemitambo yezvinyorwa (zvipenyu) ndeyechokwadi kupfuurira kusagadzikana mune zvepfungwa, iyo inonziwo "chimiro maererano nekurera". Nhengo mbiri idzi dzinofanirwa kutamba nzvimbo inokosha. Itai ma-hormone pre-uye-thyroid. Kunyange zvazvo kuita zvepabonde kunowedzera kuwedzerwa nekugadzira, hazvirevi kugadziriswa kwazviri.

Kusiyana kwehutano Kunogona kukanganisa hutano hwepabonde hunosanganisira Mazano ekuona mabasa ezvepabonde anopiwa nemudzimai nevana, nhamba dzemasimba, mashizha makuru uye vamwe vanhu vane simba muhupenyu hwomukomana. Kana vana vari kuwedzerwa nevanhu vakawanda vanoomerera kumabasa ekurara kwepabonde, zvechokwadi vave vaine chido chekuita nenzira yakafanana, vachifananidza hutsananguriro hwavo hwemadzimai nezvose zvinotarisana nevanorara zvepabonde. Mutauro unowedzerawo chikamu chevana, pavanenge vachinyora izwi, verengay nzira yekuparadzanisa masimba uye kugadzirisa maitiro avo kune mabasa aya akafanotarirwa. Dzidzo yezvemagariro evanhu inoratidza kuti vana vanowedzera kukurumbira kwavo kwepabonde kuburikidza nekukopa nekucherechedza maitiro ehutano hwehutano, uye kupiwa mubayiro kana kupiwa mhosva nokuda kwekuzvibata nenzira iyi, vachirega kuumbwa kubva kuvanhu vanovadzivirira kuburikidza nekuedza kutevedzera nekufamba pamwe chete.

Chiitiko chakakurumbira kubva pamusana pekufananidza kana kukurudzirwa chiitiko Chiitiko chaDavid Reimer, kana kutizve chakanzi "John / Joan." Sezvomwana, Reimer akawana kudzingiswa, achidurura mazita ake. ... Reimer akakwira saiyekadzi, akapoteredzwa nemasikana emadzimai uye akapfekedza nguo dzevasikana, asi akakundikana kutenda semukadzi.Akanga ataurirwa kuti akaberekwa nehunhurume rwechikadzi Pashure pekuedza kutsvaga kuzviuraya munguva ye 13. dzidziso yokuti nyeredzi haifaniri kuita chimwe chinhu chekuita zvepabonde kana zvepabonde.

Biological Elements

Maverengeka asati aberekwa akaita sejeni uye maHormones, anogona kukanganisa zvepabonde. Bhio chemagetsi pfungwa yekuita zvepabonde zvinoreva kuti vanhu vanowana zvepabonde zviratidzo panguva dzakadaro kusiyana neshamwari.

Migumisiro yakaoma; Kuita zvepabonde-kutarisa maHormones kwakasikwa kubva pamusana wechidiki chekukura kwekukura, uyewo apo adrenal hormone yakaenzana yakashandurwa, phenotype kukurudzira kunogona kushandurwawo zvakare, pamwe chete nehupenyu hwemafungiro avo kune humwe hukama hunogona kunge husina kukodzera chaizvo iyo nhaka inogadzirwa nemukomana wayo kana nhengo dzayo dzokunze dzokubereka.

Mahomoni anogona kukanganisa kuchinja pakati pevarume nevakadzi '

Intersex vanhu

Mubvunzo wemubvunzo weyikudzidza kubva ku1955 - 2, 000 inoratidza kuti pamusoro pe1 mune zana vanhu vanogona kuva nehupi hwehupombwe. Kusiyana kwakasiyana-siyana kunogona kunge kunobatanidza zvepabonde basa uye izvi zvinogona kunge zvichida hazvo kunge zvisingabvumirwi nehana yese yepabonde yevana. Kusimbisa hutungamiri hwepabonde panguva yehutoni uye yekuvhiya ichaputsa kodzero dzepamutemo dzomumwe munhu.

Tsvakurudzo ye 2005 pamusoro pezviito zvepabonde zvekuita zvepabonde zveMadzimai-akakwidziridzwa 46, XY varume vachishandisa erectile dysfunction agenesis, kuvhara ropa kwechirume chemurume kana kuwanikwa kwevarume, vakawana kuti 78 muzana yezvavakaongorora nzvimbo dzakanga dziri mupenyu sevakadzi, panzvimbo ye22 muzana vakasarudza kutanga shanduko yevakadzi pakati pevarume nemukati wavo wepabonde.

Kepanhau rekuongorora re 2012 rakawana iyo inosanganisira 8.5percent uye 20 muzana yevanhu vane maitiro evanosangana pabonde neanoita zvepabonde dysphoria. Kuongorora kwezvematongerwo enyika muAustralia, nyika inoshandisa chikamu chikamu chechitatu che'Egree group, inoratidza kuti 19 muzana yevarume vakaberekerwa nehutano hwekuita zvepabonde vakatora "X" kana "mamwe" mamwe maitiro, asi 52 muzana ndevasikana, 23 muzana varume vakuru, pamwe chete ne6 yepasheni yakazara.Akazosvika, 52 yezana yevarume kubva pakutsvakurudza vakaendeswa kune vakadzi, uye 41 muzana vakagoverwa murume.

Tsvakurudzo yakaitwa naReiner & Gearhart inopa humwe ruzivo kune Chii chinogona kuitika apo vana vevana vane cloacal exstrophy vanopiwa vakadzi uye kuwedzerwa vasikana, zvichienderana ne "hutungamiri hwehutano hwevakadzi" hwakagadzirwa naJohn Money: pane muenzaniso we14 kiddies, kutevedza kunosanganisira iyo makore e5 kusvika ku1 2 yakaratidza kuti humwe hutatu hwaihwo hunoonekwa sekuru nasekurukuru, uye mumwe nemumwe nyaya dzaive nemafungiro evanhu-zvakajairika mafungiro nemafungiro, achipa rubatsiro kumagariro aro kuti zvizvarwa zvinokanganisa kugadzikana kwehutano uye mufambiro mumwe wevechidiki.

Zvinokonzera kusangana pabonde nekudhakwa

Nhamba Yezvidzidzo Zvakave zvichiongororwa kana pane zvechokwadi Connection pakati pevanhu vanoita zvepabonde kana transgender pamwe chete nezvikonzero. Nhoroondo dzakaratidza kune izvo zvakanyatsobatanidzwa kuburikidza nekuita kwavo zvepabonde uye kuti zvivako zvepfungwa zvepabonde zvepabonde zvichibva kune vanoita zvepabonde zvinoshandurwa kubva pane izvo chaizvo zvakabatana nehutano hwavo. Mune imwe nzvimbo, nhovo yemubhedha we stria terminals kana BSTc (chikamu chechiyi chinonzi basal gangness chepfungwa dzavo iyo inokonzerwa neesophageal androgens) yevasikana vasikana inofananidzwa nevakadzi vechikadzi vakadzi uye vakafanana nevarume. Kufanana nemafungiro ekugadzirisa matanho anocherechedza pakati pehupombwe nevarume vanoita zvepabonde, uyewo pakati pehutano hwepabonde nemadzimai echikadzi. Imwe tsvakurudzo inoreva kuti kutengesa kwepabonde kunogona kuwana chikamu chekuzvarwa.

Kutsvakurudza zvakare Kunofunga Kuti mahomoni anokurudzira Kuparadzaniswa muUtero ane simba kune iyo uye anokonzera Evhangeri yekusangana kwepabonde. Zviyero zvevakadzi ivavo kana varume varume veHormoni mukati memurume kana mukadzi zvinogona kuguma Hazvikwanisi kuenzana kwehutano hwakagadzirirwa mangwanani, uye kune mumwe munhu Behaving uye kuonekwa sechinhu chavo chepabonde chinowanikwa.

Zvemagariro uye zvikamu zvezvakatipoteredza

(October 2010) (Dzidza zviri nyore asi uye kana kubvisa izvi zvakanyatsojekesa muenzaniso)

Muna 1955, John mari yakakurudzira kuti zvekuita zvepabonde zvakanga zvisingatauriki uye kuvimba kana iri mwana muduku akadzokidzwazve achiri wechidiki sechikadzi. Nheyo yemari yakave yakarambidzwa, zvisinei, vadzidzi vemazuva ano vanongororedza migumisiro yeboka revanhu varikusiyana. mukati memakore makumi mapfumbamwe nemakumi matanhatu nemakumi mapfumbamwe nemakumi manomwe, mativi akafanana nekushaiwa kwababa, amai vanoda mwana, kana zvichida zvirongwa zvekusimbisa vabereki zvakaratidzwa semigumisiro; kunyange mamwe mazano anofadza anoratidza kuti vabereki vane hutano hwepfungwa vanogona kunge vachiita kuti hutano hwekuenzaniswa kwevakadzi huve nehuwandu hwezviratidzo zvehutano hwakanaka, huine sarudzo ye2004 ichicherechedza kuti "uchapupu hwakajeka hwekukosha kwemashure evanhu vanotevera hutachiwana hunoshaya." Kuongorora kwe 2008 kwakaratidza madzimai nevana vemana haana kuzivisa zviratidzo zvezvinetso.

Zvave zvichiratidza kuti mafungiro emwana uyu zvisinei zviratidzo zvinosarudzwa, chiratidzo chemwana wepabonde chingangobatsira.

Institution of sex roles

Vabereki Munyika Yose Utano Hurege kukurudzira zvepabonde nzvimbo yepamusoro zvimwe zvingawedzerwa Kufarira kuva nevechidiki vane maonero ekuti nzvimbo yepamusoro inowedzera yakasimba uye yakasimba panyaya dzepabonde nekugadzirisa zvepabonde. Mazuva ano mabhuku anotsanangura kuti tsika yekuita zvepabonde uye mabasa, sezvo kuongorora kwesayenzi kwekunyora kwemasikisi sevarume, vakadzi, kana kusasaruri zvinoreva kuti mummy nepik code mumamiriro ezvinhu akawanda zvakadai saiyo mapikisi emakicheni asingasaruri pane kunyanya mukadzi asi Emily Kane akacherechedza kuti vazhinji vekare vakaratidza tsitsi, kunze kwemhinduro mune zvinhu, mabasa, kana hutsika zvaifungidzirwa kuva vakadzi, vhutano, semuenzaniso semuenzaniso matarenda. Kuongororwa kwakaratidza kuti vashoma vekare vanoita kuedza kurondedzera zvepabonde kuvana vavo vaduku neimwe nzira iyo vana vaduku vachibva mumhuri, '' pamwe nekushandiswa kwekutaura kane Kane "basa rekuchengeta muganhu wevabereki rinoratidzwa nevana rinomirira chipingamupinyi chinokosha kuderedza vasikana kusarudza, kuparadzanisa vakomana kubva kuvasikana, kuita mabasa anoita sevakadzi kune vakomana nevasikana, uye naizvozvo kusimbisa kusiyana kwevakadzi uye hetero normativity. "

Vabereki vane mutarisiro wemutsa kune Mukomana wavo kana mukadzi wavo akambomirira wechidiki hutano, kusvikira yakaberekwa zvechokwadi. mwana anosvika muzvidimbu, mitambo, mitambo, uye zita shomanana. Pane imwe nguva mwana wako wechikadzi ane hutano akasarudzwa vana vanodzokorodzwa kusvikira iye zvino maererano nemukadzi kana kuti mushure mekunge munhu, achifananidza munhu kana zvepabonde yehafu yepabonde yakataurwa nevakawanda vekare.

Apo Kufunga nezvevabereki vehupenyu hwemagariro evanhu, hutsika-pasi asi asi, pakati peboka "vane unyanzvi" vakaroorana vanowanzotaura pamusoro pekuparadzana kwevashandi vebasa mu Nursing vanobata maonero ehutano.

Tsanangudzo

Kusvikira zuva ranhasi ivo vanowanzoshandiswa nenzira iyoyo, tho 'huwandu hwevadzidzi mukuwedzera vanoshandisa izwi kuti vatsvake mazano kubva mune zvepabonde uye makirasi emhando dzepabonde gay, lesbian uye bvexual.

Zvinyorwa zvokurapa zvokutanga

Pakupedzisira-19th-zana remakore rezvokurapa, vasikana World Health Organisation vakasarudzwa kuti varege kuchinja kune zvavakatarisira kuita zvepabonde vainzi "inverts", uye kuti vaifananidzirwa sevamwe Vachibatanidza muHanzvadzi yekufarira mune ruzivo nekudzidza, uye "vasingadi uye dzimwe nguva kusakwanisa kukurudzira kushandiswa kwekugadzira "". "Mukati mejeri yepennennary, vanachiremba vakanyengetedza kururamiswa kwevasikana nevasikana vaduku, izvo zvaireva kuti tsika dzepabonde dzaisava chikamu chechimiro chaizodzingiswa uye kuchinjwa.Ichikonzero chekurapa kwaiva kuti vadzvinyirire vaduku kudzokera ku "maitiro" avo ehutano uye nekudaro vachigadzirisa chikamu chevechidiki World Health Organization yakava kudarika.

Freud naJung maonero

Muna 1905, chiremba hweuropi akapa pfungwa yake ye-ingenesis mu 3 Essays pamusoro pekufungidzira zvepabonde, kupa uchapupu kuti mukati mechikamu chepakutanga vaduku havanzwisisi pakati pepabonde, zvisinei vanofunga kuti vakuru vega vega vane vane simba rakaenzana uye vane simba rokubereka. Pachikonzero ichi, akataura kuti bisexuality ndiyo yekutanga kuita zvepabonde iyo kuita zvepabonde kwakange kuripo kwekudzvinyirira muchikamu chose, pamusana pacho chinangwa chavo chakazoonekwa. pakuchengeta neurologist, munguva yose iyi, vechidiki vakavamba kushamwaridzana muUnited Nursery chero kupi zvavakaita zvepabonde nemubereki anonzi shanduko yakasiyana nemafungiro emubereki anonzi akafanana nehutano, uye pfungwa iyi yakashandurwa mukati (kusingazivi) kuiswa uye ( ) kuzivikanwa nemubereki anosekwa neWorld Health Organisation mumwe nomumwe akaratidza muenzaniso kuti afadze kugadzirisa zvepabonde uye akatambudzwa kukanda simba romwana kuti afadze zvepabonde.Kunyange 1913, Jung akaratidza dambudziko re Electra sezvo iye mumwe nomumwe aitenda kuti bisexuality yakakundikana kureva nhema hupenyu hwepfungwa, iyo yeurologist yakakundikana kupa tsanangudzo yakakwana kumwana wechikadzi (Freud akaramba zano iri).

1950s uye gumi nemasere makumi matanhatu

Munguva makumi mapfumbamwe nemakumi mapfumbamwe uye '60s, vanachiremba vezvepfungwa vakatanga kudzidza kudzidzira kwevakadzi mune vechidiki vaduku, pamwe muchiedza kuziva mhedzisiro yevanhurume (iyo yaifungidzirwa sekushamisika panguva iyoyo). Muna 1958, kutsvakurudza kwevanhu pachavo kwakagadziriswa pakati peUCLA pakati pekudzidza vanhu vanoita zvepabonde uye vanoita zvepabonde. musoro-shirker Henry M. Robert Stroller akawandisa zvikamu zvakawanda zvezviwanikwa zvebasa iri mubhuku rake reBonde neGender: Pamusangano weMasculinity uye muliebrity (1968). iye pamwe chete anokonzerwa nekutaura izwi rokuti munhu mumwechete kune International Psychotherapy Congress mumutungamiri weSweden, Kingdom of Sweden mu1963. basa reasayendisiti John cash raiva pamwe chete mubasa mukati mekusimbiswa kwezvinyorwa zvekutanga zvevanhu. Basa rake paJohn Hopkins Medical Chikoro chemunhu mumwechete Clinic (yakagadzirwa mu1965) yakashamwaridzana yakawanda muUniteding integrationist nheyo yevanhu pachavo, zvichiratidza kuti, kusvikira panguva chaiye, munhu mumwe nomumwe anowirirana nemafuta uye anowanzotaurirana nguva dzose. Bhuku rake Man and girl, Boy and woman (1972) rakava rakashandiswa zvikuru semabhuku eunivhesiti, kunyange zvazvo mazano akawanda emari kubva kare akamborwisana.

Butler's views

Mumakore makumi mapfumbamwe nemakumi mapfumbamwe makumi maviri nemanomwe, Judith murume anotengesa pamba akatanga kudzidzisa kakawanda pamusoro pehupenyu hwevanhu, uye muna 1990, akaratidza Gender Trouble: Feminism uyewo kushandiswa kwehuzivi, kuunza mhedzisiro yehutano hwemadzimai uye kutengesa kuti zvepabonde rimwe nerimwe nechiyero chechikadzi yakasikwa.

Ipa maonero

Ichi chikamu chinoda mamwe mazwi ekutsanangurira. Ndapota shandisai zvinyorwa zvinovimbika. Zvinhu zvisingabvumirwi zvakare zvinogona kupikiswa uye kubviswa. (November 2015) (Verenga zvakadaro uye kamwe chete kuti ubvise muteeremu uyu muenzaniso)

Mushonga

SezvaA2018, pane dzimwe nguva-kuchinja kwemaonero nekushayana kwatsva pamusoro pekutenda kwakanyanyisa kukura kunze kwekusagadzikana kwepabonde. Vashandi vezvechiremba, saizvozvowo Sekubatana muUnitede kuwedzera huwandu hwemapurisa, kazhinji hahutsigire kana kutenda pfungwa yekushandura kurapwa, iyo ikozvino yakanyatsoratidzirwa sechinhu chisina musoro uye chisingabatsiri. Mukati reGreat Britain, masimba makuru uye masangano epfungwa, zvakafanana nekuda kweNHS, apedzisa kuti kutendeuka kwekurapa kurapwa kuti 'kugadzirisa' zvepabonde kune ngozi uye basa iri kuitwa kuti kuwedzerwa nzvimbo iyi kuisa humwe humwe.

Kune rumwe rutivi, pane zviyero zvakaringana zvekare zvakasiyana-siyana zvezvipatara World Health Organization ichiri kutenda kuti panofanira kuva nekugadzirisa kwevechikadzi vasiri vechidiki. Vanodavira kuti zvigaro zvepabonde zvakasiyana-siyana uye mitambo zvinogona kukurudzira vaduku kuti vazviite mumabasa avo evanhukadzi vekare.

Vanhu vanoita zvepabonde vanozvitsvakira vanhu vakawanda vanoda kutsungirira chirwere chepanyama kuti vaite zvepabonde maitiro avo, zvikamu zvechipiri, kana zvese, semugumisiro wekuti vanofunga kuti vachave vakasununguka zvakanyanya zvakasiyana-siyana. izvi zvinogona kusanganisira kubviswa kwemajeri, masheti kana mazamu, kana kuti kuronga kune nhengo, chikwata kana mazamu. mukati mekare, kuita zvepabonde chirongwa chekuvhiya chakaitwa kune vacheche World Health Organization square measure inoberekwa nekutengesa kunoshamisa. Zvisinei, maonero ehutano ehutano anonyanya kurwisana nemutambo uyu, sezvo vanhu vazhinji vakura vakazvidemba kuti izvi zvakasarudzwa zvakasikwa kwavari pakuberekwa. Nhasi, chirongwa chepabonde chekuita basa rinoitwa kune avo vanofarira kuve nekushandurwa uku kuitira kuti maitiro avo evanhu vanoita zvepabonde vanofananidza ivo pachavo.

Mukati medu, zvakanyatsogadzirirwa pasi peConction Care zvine musoro kuti kushandiswa kweinishuwarenzi kwaizova nekushandura kwekuunganidza huwandu hwemashoko pamusoro pehutano uye hutano hwepabonde kuburikidza nemibvunzo inobatsira, kubatsira vatsigiri vezvematongerwo enyika kuti vabvume zvido zvemunharaunda weGGBT.

Gender kusagadzikana uye kuzvisarudzira dambudziko

Gender discontentedness (yaimboti "chirwere chepabonde chirwere" kana kuti GID mukati meDMM) ndechokuti kuzivikanwa kwakagadziriswa kwevanhu vari munyika yeWorld Health Organization vanoziva kusakanganiswa kwakakosha (kusagutsikana) nehupombwe hwavakagoverwa pakuberekwa uye / kana nhengo dzepabonde dzine chokuita nehupombwe : "Muhutano hwehupombwe, pane kuwirirana pakati pehutano hwepabonde nemumwe munhu wekunze kwekunze kwakadaro sekushanda kwepfungwa kwevanhu pane zvepabonde sevakadzi kana vakadzi" Kuziva uye kushandiswa kwematunhu Bhuku reMental Disorders (302.85) rine mitemo mitanhatu iyo rinofanira kuwanikwa kuburikidza neChipatanho mukuongororwa kwechiremba wehutano hwehutano hungave huchigadzirwa nefekitari, uye pamwe chete urwere hunoenda mberi kune imwe nyika kune imwe tsvakurudzo inotarisirwa panguva, sekufanirwa kwepabonde urwere hwevana (nokuti vana veWorld Health Organisation vanotsungirira dysphoria) .

Chirongwa chekuita zvepabonde chakabva kubva kuKutsvaga uye yakashandisa matanho eMagwaro eMental Disorders muzvikamu zvaro zvitatu, DSM-III (1980), pamhando yemhando mbiri yekurapa zvepabonde dysphoria: zvepabonde chirwere chepabonde chechidiki (GIDC), kunze kwemamiriro (nekuda kwevechidiki nevakuru). Shanduro ye 1987 yebhuku rino, pamwe chete '' DSM-III-R, yakabatana neChirangaridzo muUkuzivikanwa kweUkuchengetedza: zvepabonde dambudziko rekuziva nezvekukura nekuyaruka kusarudzwa. Ichi chiratidzo chekupedzisira chakaitwa 1st mune imwezve yezvekushandurwa, '' DSM-IV (1994), iyo yakazowirawo GIDC uye pamwe chete nemamiriro ezvinhu ekutsvaga kutsva kwehutano hwevanhu pachavo. Muna 2013, DSM-5 inonzi zita rekuzivikanwa kwepabonde rekuzivikanwa uye rakadzokororwa pachake tsanangudzo.

Vanyori vepepanhau re2005 vanopesana nekutsanangurwa kwehutano hwehutano hwepabonde hunokonzerwa nekufunga kwepfungwa Izvo DSM Upgrades zvingangove zvingave zviripo iye zvino zvave zvasikwa pane imwe nheyo kana maqembu akashandura kuti abvise gayness. Izvi zvinoramba zvichirwisana neKuwanda Kwekunyanya Kuwanda kwevashandi vepfungwa vane mafashoni vanobvumirana pane kutevera nezvose DSM zvigadziriswa.

Mutemo wenyika dzekodzero dzevanhu

Iyo Yogyakarta Principles, nhoroondo panguva dzenguva purogiramu yeMutemo wepasi rose wekodzero dzevanhu, inopa kubva kune chirevo chekutanga chekuita zvepabonde semugumisiro wemunhu wese anonyatsonzwisiswa mukati uye kuburitswa kwevanhu kune zvepabonde, izvo zvingave kana zvisingatenderane nevose hutano hwakagoverwa mambakwedza, semuenzaniso, vanhu vanoziva nezvebod yavo (iyo inogona kusanganisira, inofanira kusarudzwa nemaoko, kuchinja kwehutano hwepanyama kana basa nekliniki, chirwere kana nzira dzakasiyana) kunze kwekutaura nezvepabonde, semuenzaniso wekufuka , address uye tsika. Mutongi wechitatu anotaura kuti "Munhu wese anozvitsanangurira zvake anoenderana nehutano hwavo uye chimwe chezvinhu zvose zvakakosha zvinokosha zvekuzvimirira, chiremerera uye rusununguko uyezve kuwedzera Mumiriri gumi nemasere anoti" Pasinei nenyaya ipi zvayo yakasiyana, Kuita zvepabonde nemunhu mumwe nomumwe hazvirevi, mukati mavo, zvirwere uye hazvifaniri kurapwa, kurapwa kana kubviswa. "Nokuda kwezvakanyorwa," Mhosva dzeMitemo yeYogyakarta Principles "yakawana kuti" Gender identity zvakasiyana nezvakagoverwa pakuberekwa, kana kuti kurambidzwa kwemaonero ehutano hwevanhu, vanobatwa semhando yepfungwa. Kuve nekudzivirira kwekusiyanisa kune LED yevanakadzi-transgressive vana nevechiri kuyaruka vari mumagariro epfungwa, uye vanozviisa pamiganho yekudzivisa - uyewo electroshock - se "kuporesa." "Yogyakarta Principles in Action" inoti " zvakakosha zvikuru kuona kuti nepo 'kuratidzira zvepabonde' kwave kusina kusimbiswa semamiriro epfungwa munyika dzakawanda, 'kugadzirisa zvepabonde' kana kuti 'hutano hunhu hunozivikanwa' hunogara huri mupfungwa. "Iyi Mitemo yakakanganisa sangano reUnited Nations pamusoro pekuita zvepabonde uye zvepabonde Muna 2015, kugadzirisa zvepabonde kwaive kune imwe mhosva yeDare Repamusorosoro asi panguva dzakati isu ainzi Oberg akawira v Hodges muhurumende iyo yose yakanga yakadzivirirwa pakati pevakadzi nevarume.

Kwete-bhinary sex identity

Mhuri shomanana, uye vamwe vedu havaiti zvepabonde seA binary kana chero munhu wose angave mukomana kana mukadzi, kana zvichida kunyange murume kana kuti zvichida mukadzi. Dzorera pasi pemuraira zvisiri izvo zvisiri zvinyorwa kana zvichida zvepabonde. Dzimwe hupfumi dzine mabasa epabonde chaiwo izvo zvingasiyana kubva kune "murume" uye "mukadzi." kubva munzvimbo idzi unonzi hutatu hwevakadzi.

Fafafafa

Mune dzimwe nzvimbo dzePolynesian, kunyange fa'afafine nzvimbo yechina inonzi Inofanirwa kuita zvepabonde. ivo chaizvo vari varume, asi zvipfeko uye vanoita panguva yefashoni inonzi mukadzi. Sezvinorondedzerwa naTamasailau Sua'ali'I (ona zvinyorwa), fa'afafine muSamoa zvishoma nezvishoma munharaunda yemunharaunda kazhinji muviri haugoni kubereka. Ichishandurwa zvese, fa'afafine zvinoreva "kubva mumamiriro emadzimai"

Hijras

Mune dzimwe Civilizations yeAsia, hijra inoratidzika kuva munhu kana musikana. Vashoma vasikana, kunyange vazhinji vari varume kana intersex. Basa repabonde rinoumbwa naIye hijra, kunyange zvazvo kazhinji vasingafariri zvakanyatsonaka kubvumirwa nekuremekedzwa kubva vakadzi nevarume vari mukati mavo. Vanokwanisa kutungamira mhuri dzavo, uyewo mabasa avo mutambo uye vose vari vaviri vachiimba, kushanda vachishandisa varume vakuru sevashandi kana vanobika zvifeve, kana kunyange vakaroorana. Hijras inogona kunge yakasiyana-siyana inotora vhesi kana vatengesi vemazuva ano hupfumi.

Khanith

Kunyangwe rudzi rweKhanith kubvumirana kwepabonde muOman. Kunyangwe mukomana ari varume vane gay Maitiro avo vane tafura yokupfekedza ndeyevanhu vaviri, kusanganisira mavara matsvuku (munzvimbo inenge yakachena, Yakarambwa nevakomana), zvisinei nemitemo yavo yevakadzi. Khanith uye vasikana vanogona kushamwaridzana Vanowanzoita michato kana zvimwe zvinhu. VaKhanith vane avo veMhuri yavo, vachiita mabasa ose (yega yega yega nevanhurume). Zvisinei kune vanhu Khaniths, munharaunda yavo pachavo uye vakadzi vanogona kuroora, kuratidzira hukama hwavo kuburikidza nekushandisa kubatana. Kana kuenda kana kurambana kwako kuitika, ava varume vanogona kudzoka kubva ku khaniths mumuchato kune yavo pachake zuva. Vaviri-mweya vanozivikanwa

mabasa ehutano. izvo zviri zvezvikwata zvinowedzera zvevakadzi, kune kure kure cisgender murume uye mukadzi, nzvimbo yeunharaunda ikozvino inowanzobatanidzwa pamwe ichitumidzwa kuti "Mhepo Miviri" kana "maviri miviri". Ikoko nzvimbo yezvikamu zvezvikamu zvevanhu vanoita "TwoSpirit" sekirasi pamusoro pekubatana nehutano pachedu, kusarudza kuonekwa nemitemo kana rudzi-ruzivo rwehutano hwepabonde:

  • Kuita zvepabonde
  • Mhuka dzisiri-vanhu

Mhuka Homosexual behavior muzvipfuwo (urongwa)

Class class

vte

Ukama huri pakati pehupenyu nehutano hwepabonde hunogona kuva nyaya yekuongorora. nepo masayendisiti haanzwisisi chikonzero chaicho chekuita zvepabonde, vanofungidzira kuti kusanganiswa kwemajini, mahomoni, uye zvemagariro zvinotsigira icho.Zvinofungidzirwa kuti zvinokonzerwa nehutano hwepabonde pane zvekuita zvepabonde, zvisinei, hazvina simba, zvikurukuru for men.

Zvinyorwa zvezvinyorwa zvekutsanangura zvinokonzerwa nekuita zvepabonde nzvimbo inoshandiswa nevasayendisiti uye inosanganisira kushamwaridzana kwemazwi ezvakaberekwa, iyo yekutanga inhengo yekuberekwa mukati maro uye nhengo dzeuropi. Zvinhu izvi, izvo zvingabatanidzwa nechiitiko chekuita zvepabonde, ungochani, zvepabonde, kana maagamid, ane majeni, ante partum hormones, uye huro hwehutano.

Twin study

Zvimwe zvidzidzo zviviri zvakaedza kuenzanisa kukosha kwehutano hwezvesayenzi uye zvakatipoteredza mukati mekugadzirisa zvepabonde. panguva yekudzidza kweC1991, Bailey naPillard vakaita chidzidzo chemajaya madzimai akanyorwa kubva "mabhuku ekumusha", uye akawana kuti makumi mashanu nemaviri ehama dzeMonozygotic (MZ) (avo makumi mashanu nevapfumbamwe vakabvunzwa) uye makumi maviri nechipiri chezvinyorwa zveDyzygous (DZ) twins zvaienderana nekuita zvepabonde. "MZ 'inoratidza mapatya akaenzana ane akaenzana masero ejeni anosangana ne' DZ' anoratidza mapatya emadzimai pose pose majini nzvimbo inosanganiswa kusvika pamwero wakafanana neavo vasina vana vaviri. newaini, vatsvakurudzi vakawana pakati pevanhu vavo zvikuru zvidzidzo zvevarume kubvumirana kwepabonde yekuita zvepabonde kwemakumi matanhatu nematanhatu pakati pemamaponde emonozygotic uye hafu yeawa rimwe pakati pemapatya ane madiki.Zvino 2000 Bailey, Dunne naMartin vakadzidza mhando yakakura yechina, maAndan Australian twins rumored asi 901 muwandu we concordance.Vakawana mazana maviri e concordance mukati memukomana akafanana kana MZ twins negoridhe yakakwana concordance yemadzimai akangofanana kana maM twins .. Self rumored zygosity, sexua l kukwezva, kufungidzira uye mafambiro zvakaongororwa nefomu uye zygosity zvaiongororwa secheologically kamwe isina chokwadi. Vatsvakurudzi vakasiyana-siyana vanotsigira zvikonzero zvehupenyu hwevarume nevakadzi vanoita zvepabonde.

Bearman naBruckner (2002) vakatsoropodza zvidzidzo zvepakutanga zvakanyanya kuisa zvishoma, vasarudza sampuli uye vasingasarudze sarudzo dzavo. Vakadzidza 289 mapaundi maviri akafanana (twine monozygotic, kana kuti kubva kune rimwe jaya rakaiswa mukati) uye 495 mapaviri emapatya ehama (dizygotic, kana kubva ku2 inseminated mazai) uye akawanikwa concordance mazinga ekukwezva kwepabonde imwechete yevanomwe chete.7% yevarume vakafanana mapatya uye mashanu.3% yevakadzi, chimiro chavanotaura "hachizorevi kuti munhu ane ruzivo rwezvemagariro evanhu".

Chidzidzo cheC2010 chevanhu vose vakuru muScandinavia nyika (vanopfuura vanomwe, 600 twins) vakawana kuti mhando imwechete yepabonde yakatsanangurwa nezvose zvakagarwa nhaka nemunhu-zvakasiyana-siyana mamiriro ezvinhu (zvakadai seante partum environment, unyanzvi hune hukama hwakanaka uye tsvina, uyewo sezveshamwari, uye zvepabonde), asi kuchinja kwezvinhu zvakasiyana-siyana zvakasiyana-siyana semhuri yakakomberedza uye mafungiro evanhu zvakange zvisina kusimba, asi zvakakosha. vasikana vakaratidzira maitiro ekuverengeka asingasviki maitiro ekusimba simba risina simba rehupenyu, asi varume havana kuratidza kuchinja kwezvakatipoteredza. basa revanhu vose vakuru muScandinavia nyika yakagadzirirwa kutarisana nekutsoropodza zvidzidzo zvezvizvipiri, panguva iyo inenge yakasarudzwa yekubatana nevejaya mapofu ingakanganisa migumisiro.

Biometric modeling yakawana kuti, muvarume, maitiro emagetsi akatsanangurwa .34 -. 39 yekusiyana kwepabonde, nzvimbo dzakaparadzaniswa .00, uyewo nzvimbo yakasiyana-siyana .61 -. 66 yekusiyana. Kuenzanisa kwakaenzana pakati pevasikana kwaiva .18 -. 19 yemagetsi, .16 -. 17 yekugoverana pamwe chete, uye .64 -. 66 nokuda kwezvinhu zvakasiyana-siyana zvezvakatipoteredza. kunyange zvazvo kupindira kwepakati kunopindirana kunokurudzira kududzira kuchenjerera, zvinowanikwa munzvimbo inoenderana nekugadzirisa, kunyanya zvizvarwa, maitiro emhuri, uye kuenzanisa kusvika pamigumisiro yezvinhu zvisingabatanidzi (zvehupfumi nehupenyu) kune unhu hwepabonde hwepabonde.

Kururamisa

Zvimwe zvidzidzo zvakagamuchira zvakasiyana-siyana zvekutsoropodza pamwe nekuzvisarudzira kuzvisarudzira kupi zvako ungochani nevanhurume vanoita zvechikadzi munharaunda unit zvakawanda zvekugona kuzvipira kune zvidzidzo. hongu, zvinokwanisika kugumisa kuti, zvakapiwa kusiyana kwepabonde mumasero akawanda ezvakaita mapatya, kuita zvepabonde hazvikwanisi kutaridzirwa zvachose kune zvizvarwa zvepabonde.

Imwe nyaya ndeyokuti kuwanikwa kwekupedzisira kuti kunyange monozygotic mapatya angave akasiyana zvachose uye kune nzira iyo inogona kuenzanisa monozygotic mapatya asina kukanganisa kuita zvepabonde. Gringas naKen (2001) vanotsanangura nzira dzakasiyana-siyana dzinogona kukonzera kusiyana kwemonozygotic mapatya, chinhu chikuru chakakosha pano chiri chorionicity uye kuvenga. Dichorionic twins pasina mubvunzo ane nzvimbo dzakasiyana zvakasiyana-siyana dzekuchengetedza semagumisiro ekuti vanogamuchira ropa rekuberekwa kubva kune imwe nzvimbo yeparcenta, uye izvi zvinogona kuguma zvakasiyana zvakasiyana siyana zvehurosi kukura. Mono amniotic twins anoshandisa nzvimbo yakachengetedzwa, kunyange zvakadaro ichasangana ne "double to twin transfusion syndrome" iyo iyo rimwe twin "rinofananidzwa rakazara pamwe chete neropa uyezve kune rimwe rakasiyana rakapetwa".

Chromosome linkage studies

Chromosome kuwirirana kwehutano hwepabonde zvakaratidza kuvapo kwezvizhinji zvinokonzera maitiro ehupenyu panguva yose. Muna 1993 Dean Hamer uye vaaishanda navo vakazarura zviwanikwa kubva pakusangana kwechikwata chemuenzaniso wehama makumi manomwe nematanhatu gay nemhuri dzavo. Hamer et al .. vakawana kuti varume vanoita zvepabonde vaiva nevarume vanhurume vanhurume nevanun'una nemadzikoma nevanun'una pamhuri yemhuri yemhuri kudarika nhengo dzemadzibaba. Gay hama United Nations sangano rakaratidza kuti chizvarwa chechizvarwa chekuberekwa chikazoongororwa zvepabonde chromosome kubatana, kushungurudzwa makumi maviri nemaviri marker pamusoro pechromosome yepabonde kutarisa zvirevo zvakafanana. Mune imwe yekuwana, kadhimendi yemakumi maviri emadzimai akaenzaniswa akaedzwa akawanikwa aine zvinyorwa zvakafanana mukati memharaunda yeXq28, iyo yakanga yakawanda zvikuru kupfuura inotarisirwa mazana makumi mashanu kuhama dzehama. Izvi zvaizivikanwa zvakanzi "gonhosi" kubva mumashizha, zvichikonzera kusiyana kukuru kwemashoko Sanders et al. Ku1998 yakanyorwa mubhuku ravo, vachiziva kuti gumi nematatu emadzimai emadzimai ehama dzechikadzi ivo vanoita zvepabonde vari mucheche, achifananidzwa ne6 pc pane zvinopesana nemaoko

Kuongorora kwakaguma naHu et al. akadzokorora izvo zvitsva zvakawanikwa. Kuongorora kusinganzwisisiki kuti makumi matanhatu nemanomwe pc yehama pane shanduro yaive itsva yakagoverwa chiratidzo pamusoro pechromosome yepabonde mu Xq28.2 mamwe mazvesayenzi ezvesayenzi (Bailey et al., '' 1999; mumwe nomumwe McKnight naMalcolm, 2000) vakakundikana kuwana chikonzero wehukama hwehukama hwepabonde mumugwagwa wevarume vevakomana. Rimwe kuongorora naRir et al. pa 1999 yakakundikana kubereka zvakanyatsobatsirana Xq28 zvinyorwa zvinoshandiswa .Meta-analysis ye data rose inoratidza kushamwaridzana neXq28, zvisinei, zvinoratidza zvakare kuti ma enzyme inofanira kuratidzira kumabhadharo zvachose nokuda kwekunakidzwa kwehutano hwepabonde.

Mustanski et al. (2005) yakarongedza zvizere-genome scan (pane kungoita chromosome yekuona zvepabonde) kune vanhu uye mhuri dzikaramba dzichitaura muHamer et al. (1993) uye Hu et al. (1995), kuwedzera kune dzakasiyana dzakakwana nzvimbo dzezvino. Kuti havana kuwana kuwirirana kuXq28.

Migumisiro muPakutanga Multi Multi Centre iyo yakakwana Ichitsvaga chisina kugadziriswa chevatsvakurudzi vakatsvaga kuongororwa kwehutano hwepabonde muAmerica Society of Human Genetics pa2012. Iko kuongororwa kwevanhu vaisanganisira 409 mapaviri ehama, '' izvo zvakaongororwa nepamusoro pepolymorphism markers. Izwi rakanyatsobudisa zvakare Hamer's Xq28 zvitsva zvakagadziridzwa zvakaenzana neEuxPoint pamwe ne-multi-point (MERLIN) LOD mapping mapping. Kubatanidza kwakawanikwa pamwe chete nevashoma pakati pezviwanikwa zvakawanikwa kubva kuHamer labor genome-wide review. Kuita zvepabonde hakuratiki kuti kuwirirana ne Xq28, kunyange zvazvo ichingave yakaratidza mazita emarudzi.

Mukuwedzera pane zvinogona kuitika, kugoverana kwebonde kwechipo chromosomal mupiro wekushanduka kwekutsvaga kunoramba kuchiratidzwa. Pamushumo wevanhu wakaitwa mukuwandisa kwevatambi ve 7000, '' Ellis et al. (2008) akawana purogiramu yakawandisa pakuwanda kwechimiro cheropa A pakati pevanodanana nevarume vanoita zvepabonde uye vakaroorana. Uyezve vakaona kuti "vanhu vasingashamisi" zvevarume nevarume vanoita zvepabonde vakapedzisa Rh inobvisa kusiyana nehutachiona. Sezvo ropa romuviri neRhe zvinyorwa zvakagadzirirwa zvigaro zvinodzorwa ne alleles zvichienderana nekromosome 9 uye chromosome inch kuongorora kunoreva kuwirirana pakati pemagenene pamusoro pekutendeseka uye ungochani.

Tsvakurudzo yehutano hwepabonde Yakarongedzwa mune Zvimwe Zvinyorwa Muzhinji mhando dzemhando dzemhando. Pazvakawanda zvitsva zvinokonzera michero Drosophila melanogaster, iyo yakadzika midziyo yekuita zvepabonde yehupfungwa dzavo uyewo maitiro ayo anoronga ichave yakanyatsozivikanwa muvarume nevakadzi, uyewo inopa shanduro yakasimba yekudanana. Mumakumbo ezvipfuwo, chigadzirwa chemageneti muKorea Advanced Institute yeScience uye Technology yakashandura chido chepabonde chemadzimai ekubvisa kubvisa imwe yamuviri inobatanidza nehutano hwekubereka. Nyove dzairatidza kufarira uye kuita zvepabonde kune pee yeveve dzaive dzakawedzerwa. Vanhu avo vakachengetedza zvakanakira receptor fucose mutarotase (FucM) yakanga yaiswa kumiti.

Mukubvunzurudzwa mukati mema media, izvo zvakataurwa nevatsvakurudzi Hereditary zvinokurudzira 'uchapupu haufaniri kuenzaniswa ne determinism. Sezvakataurwa naDean Hamer uyewo Michael Baileyattributes ndezvimwe zvezvikonzero zvakawanda zvinokonzera ungochani.

Kudzoka muC20 17, Zvinhu zvakashambadzira chinyorwa uchishandisa gome Chikwata chekuongorora zvepabonde. Chidzidzo chacho chine varume uyewo varume vakuru. Chigadziro chinonzi SLITRK6 pane chromosome 1 3 chakagadziriswa, chinosanganisira nzvimbo kana DNA urongwa huri hwakasiyana zvikuru nevarume kunze kwevakuru vechidiki. Kuongorora kunotsigira tsananguro yechipiri iyo yakawanikwa naSimoni levay. Kuongorora kweLevay kwakaratidza kuti hypothalamus yevarume yakasiyana nevarume. I SLITRK6 yakabatikana kubva pakati pouropi iyo iyo chaizvo iyo hypothalamus ichiri. Vatsvakurudza vakawana imwezve nzvimbo, iyo inonzi "thyroid stimulating hormone receptor" (TSHR) pane chromosome 14 kuti urongwa hweDNA hwakasiyana nekuwedzera kune varume vanhurume vanoita zvechinguvana TSHR inomutsa utachiona uyewo dambudziko reguva rakavhiringidza basa reTSHR. yakawanikwa mune varume vanoita zvoungochani kudarika varume vakarurama.Kutsvakurudza kwakaratidza kuti vanhu vakaderedza uremu hwemutumbi.Iye yaifungidzirwa kuti TSHR hormone yakapera muviri.

Epigenetic tsvakurudzo

Tsvakurudzo inoratidza kubatanidzwa kunosanganisira mazita edziini Kuita upi weamai pamwe chete nehuchani unobata vanakomana vake. Vasikana vane 2 X chromosomes, imwe iyo icha "shandurwa." Kunyange iyo inactivation ye X chromosome inowanzoerekana yapfuura mumumvuyo, zvichiita kuti masero anokwanisa kushandiswa nemasikirwo ayo chromosome ichiri kubatikana. Zvinonzi kuchinja kunogona kuitika nenzira imwechete.Bocklandt et al. (2006) vakanyora izvi, mumamume evanhurume, varume vakasiyana-siyana vakadzi vanoshandisa skewing yakawanda ye X chromosome inactivation yakanyanya kufananidzwa navanaamai vanodanana nevanhurume. uyo ane mwana wechikomana chechikadzi, uyewo 13 muzana yemamume achishandisa vaviri vanodanana vanodanana, vakaratidza kunyanyisa kunetseka, mukuenzanisa ne23 muzana yemammai vasina vana vanoita zvechikadzi.

Birth Order

Blanchard uye Klassen (1997) Akacherechedza kuti zvese zvinowedzera Kuzvitsanangura izvi, zvakarongedzwa kuti mhumbu dzomukomana dzinonakidza kugadzirisa zvirwere zvekudzivirira zvirwere zvemasimba zvinowedzera zvakanyanya nezvose zvinoenderana nemukomana wemukomana. Izvi zvinotanga kushandiswa apo masero ari mumurume anonzi embbryo anowedzera kubuda kwemai paanenge ari pamuviri kana panguva yekuzvitakura. Zvose izvi zvinokonzerwa neY-iyo hazvinganzwisiswi kubva kumadzimai ekudzivirirwa maitiro sezvaanoita vakadzi, nokudaro kumuderedza kuti aite zvinodhaka zvinogona kupfuurira mukati mokuvhiringidza kweropa. Nezvakarurama zvinotevera, mishonga inopesana nemurume inogona kuyambuka ropa rechechi / bongozore (BBB) ​​yehuropi huri kukura hwehutano, nekushandura pfungwa dzepabonde-dimorphic zvirongwa zvichienzaniswa nekuita zvepabonde, nekudaro kukwidza mikana iyo mwana anotambudzika angave pasina mubvunzo inokwezva kune varume kana vachienzaniswa nevakadzi. Ndiyo iyo antigen iyo mazita emukadzi HY Makemikari ave akarayirwa kuita kuti 'yeuka'. Kubudirira kupfurikidza nehupfu hwemurume hunozourayiwa neHY Makemikari inoderedza kukwanisa kweHY antigens kuti iite basa ravo rechimiro mukufunga kwevanhu masculinisation.

Vanaamai vemunharaunda yekuzivikanwa Vakatsoropodzwa Sezvo chiitiko chemukana wekugadzirisa unofungidzirwa muzvirwere zvinowanzosiyana zvakasiyana-siyana uchishandisa chiitiko chehuchani.

Kunyange "hama yekuberekwa kwehutano" asi zvisinei, hazvirevi maAptsiti pakati pe71-85percent yemurume gay zvaanoda.Kwedzerwa, haritauri nguva iyo mwana wekutanga akaberekwa nevanhurume vanoita gay (MHP).

Kudzoka mu2017, kuti magetsi akawanikwa neScientists of. Vanofungidzira Neuroligin 4 Y-inopindirana protein inotendwa kuwana mwana akazotevera ari ungochani. Uyezve vakaona kuti vakadzi vaviri vakava nehukuru hunopesana neNLGN4Y degrees. Mhedzisiro yacho inoratidzawo kubereka kwakanyanya, amai vevanhurume vanoita zvechikadzi, kunyanya vanhu vane vakadzi vakwegura, vane ruzivo rwakanyanya kukurwisa-NLGN4Y digiri kana vachienzaniswa nematambudziko ekuedza madzimai, semuenzaniso vanaamai vaduku.

Mukadzi kubereka

Kudzoka ku2004, vatsvakurudzo veItaly vakashandisa tsvakurudzo yeavo vanenge 4,600 vanhu vave vari 98 ungochani uye 100 vadikanwi vemurume. Ukama hwemhuri hwevarume vakuru ivavo vaifarira kuwana zvakanyanya kuwanda vana vachifananidzwa neavo nevarume ivavo. Ukama hwemhuri dzechikadzi hwevamwe varume vanoita zvepabonde pamusikana wemukomana hwaiwanzoita kuti vana vakawanda vaenzaniswe nevanhu vakaenzana nababa. Vatsvakurudza vaifungira kuti pane pfuma inowanikwa iye zvino inowedzera kudarika pa X chromosome inokurudzira kubereka kubva kuna amai uyewo ungochani pakati pemurume wake kubva pamusi. Ihu hukama hwakawanikwa hunogona kutsanangurwa zvishoma nehafu 20 muzana yezviitiko izvi zvakaedzwa, zvichiratidza kuti chinhu chakakosha zvikuru, asi zvichida zvichida hachisi iye chete chaiyo maitiro ezvepabonde zvinokonzerwa nekuita zvepabonde.

Pheromone tsvakurudzo

Kutsvakurudza Kwaitwa muSweden kwakaratidza uye Kururamisa varume vanoita zvakasiyana nekunhuhwira kwezvinhu zviviri zvinofungidzirwa kuti zvibatane mune zvepabonde. Tsvakurudzo yakaratidza kuti kana zvakafanana vakadzi vanoita zvepabonde uye varume vanoita zvoungochani vari kushungurudzika kune muchengeti we testosterone wakawanikwa mumapfupa evanhu vakuru, nzvimbo kubva ku hypothalamus yakagadziriswa. Varume vanoita zvepabonde, kune rumwe rutivi, vanopinda maitiro akafanana mune isrogen-semikemikari inowanikwa mumudzimai wevakadzi. Kuguma ndeyekuti kufarira zvepabonde, kana zvepabonde zvimwechete kana kuti zvinopesana nepabonde, zvinoshanda zvakaenzana muzvidzidzo zvehupenyu. Masayendisiti akaratidza kuti izvi zvingangodaro zvinongowanikwa kuongororwa nekuongorora nzvimbo dzechidiki kuti dzione kana kutarisana kunoenderana mukati me hypothalamus kunogona kuvepo mushure mekubatanidza zvinyorwa izvi vachishandura zvepabonde.

Kutsvakurudza kwepfungwa

Zvikamu zvakawanda zvepfungwa iyi zvinonzi zvinoshanda seChizinesi dimorphic; izvi ndizvo zvinopesana pakati pevakadzi nevarume. Uyezve, pane zvakare kuve nekuongororwa kwemashanduro mukati mehutano hwehuropi zvichienderana nekutsvaga. Kudzoka ku1990, Dick Swaab uyewo Michel A. Hoffman vakaratidza kuti mukana mukukwirira kwechikamu chepamusoro-soro pakati pevarume nevakomana vanoita zvepabonde. Muna 1992, '' Allen neGorski vakaratidza kuti gaka rinosangana nehutano hwepabonde pamusana pehutano hwavo hwekare, asi kuti tsvakurudzo yakanga yakatsoropodzwa nevashanduri vakawanda vatsvakurudzo, 1 iyo yakaona kuti yose yeiyo shanduro yaive yakakonzerwa neimwe yekunze.

Tsvakurudza maitiro akasiyana-siyana ehupfungwa Ubongo hwakabva kune pfungwa vanhu vane pfungwa dzevakadzi kana munhu, uye izvi zvinoratidzawo kusiyana pakati pevarume ve2. Vamwe vatsvakurudzi vanoti hurumende yekubatsira kune iyi chaiyo ichange ichishaikwa. Kunyange zvazvo zvikwangwani zvakawanikwa, kusanganisira huro hwehutano hwavo uyewo zvechokwadi uropi hwepfungwa nzvimbo dzakabatana chaizvo.

Zvepabonde zvinokonzera nuclei mu anterior hypothalamus

Simon LeVay, nenzira iyo zvakare, akaita zvimwe zvekutsvakurudza. Akatsvaga mapoka mana ezvipiri akasiyana-siyana evhipiri pa hypothalamus inonzi INAH1, INAH2, INAH3 uyewo INAH4. Ichi chave chiri chiitiko chinokosha chepfungwa kuti chiidzidze chinotora chikamu mumutemo wehutsika zvakare kubva muna INAH2 uye nhoroondo yeAAH3 yakave yakanyorwa kuti haibvumirane maererano nekuenzanisa pakati pevakadzi nevarume.

Uchenjeri hwaive naye kubva ku4 1 wehutano hwehutano hwevanhu vanorwara. Kunyange Misoro yakarongerwa kuzvikoro zvitatu. Kirasi yacho yaisanganisira varume vane 1 9 vakanga vafa nematambudziko ane chokuita neAIDS. Iboka racho. Vanomwe vevarume ivavo vakanga vafa nehutano hwehutachiwana hweAIDS. Iboka racho rave riri revasikana ve6. Vamwe vevakadzi vakawanda vakanga vafa nehutano hweAIDS.

Varume nevakadzikadzi vane hutachiona hweHIV mumakwara evanhu vanorwara nevanokonzera mhirizhonga vakazivikanwa kubva pakusangana kubva kuchirongwa chechipatara A Couple Sekunge hutano husina hanya huri kubvuma kuita zvepabonde. Kunyange Zvinyorwa zvemashoko aya aisina mazano maererano nehutano hwavo hwepamusoro.

LeVay haana kuwana zviratidzo kuti awane gaka pakati pemakirasi Pakukura kweNAH1, INAH2 kana kunyange INAH4. Kunyange zvakadaro, iyo INAH3 band yakatarisa kuti ive yakakura nokuti kubva kumunhu; saka zvakadaro kupera kwaikosha, uye kwakagara kwakakosha kana 6 AIDS vanhu vaisanganisira kubva muboka. Ukuru hweUAH3 kubva kuburume hwevarume hwaive hwakaenzana nekukura uku kweUAH3 kubva kubhudzi hwevakadzi.

Zvisinei, mamwe matsvakurudzo akave akaratidzira Nucleus yenharaunda yepakutanga, saiyo iyo INAH3, saka ndiyo yakaenzana nekukwirira kwevarume vakaparara neAIDS kuvanhu, uye zvakanyanya kupfuura vakadzi. Izvi zvinoratidza pfungwa yokuti varume vane hypothalamus. Uyezve, SCN yevarume vanoita zvepabonde ndiyo inonyanya kukosha (ivhu uyewo zvakasiyana-siyana zvevadzidzi vanove zvakapetwa kazhinji mune vanhu vanoita zvepabonde). Zvose izvi nzvimbo dze hypothalamus hazvina kuongororwa kubva kuvasikana vaive varume vevakadzi kana vakadzi. Kunyange zvazvo zviitiko zvekushanda kwezviitiko izvi zvisinei hazvina kuongororwa zvakadzama, saka vanokandawo mubvunzo wakakomba mukati meDorner yakawanda yakanyatsozivikanwa kuti varume vevarume vane "vakadzi hypothalamus" uye nzira inokosha yekusiyanisa chaizvoizvo "uropi hwemurume kubva pakutanga ubongo hwemadzimai "hunogona kuva iyo epigenetic yomuitiro we testosterone mumumishinari wose ekuvandudzika.

William Byne nevashandi vake vakaedza Kuziva zvakajeka kuti zviyero Kusiyana kwakanyorwa pa INAH inch --4 nekukopisa kuedza kushandisa shanduko yemuenzaniso kubva kumasiyana akasiyana-siyana: Varume vane hutachiona hweHIV vane hutachiona hweHIV, 14 3 vaitenda varume vanoita zvepabonde (4 HIV-positive) , uyewo 10 3 inofanirwa kutengesa vanhukadzi (4 HIV-positive). Chimwe chepakati chakanyanya kuonekwa nevanotsvakurudza muNAH9 kuwirirana pakati pevarume nevakadzi. Kunyange iyo INAH3 nharaunda yevarume ava yakanga yakanyanyisa kuenzaniswa neyemurume mukuru wevanhu vakuru, uyewo mukuru kune avo vanodanana nemadzimai, asi zvakadaro hapana gwa rakawana kukosha kwekukosha.

Byne uye vaishanda navo vakaverenga uye vakayera nhamba yeVatori vechikamu muNAH3 kuongororwa kusina kutorwa kunze neLeVay. Migumisiro yeUAH3 bodyweight yakanga yakafanana nevanhu ve INAH3 dimension; iyi ndiyo INAH3 mutoro kuvarume varo bhurume yakanga yakakura zvikuru kana ichienzaniswa nemafungiro evakadzi, asi migumisiro yehurochani yevarume varume yakaguma pakati pevanhu vemamwe mapoka asi, zvichida zvichida haisi chaiyo yakasiyana zvachose kubva. Kunyange iyo neuron inotendwa yakawana kuti gwa mu INAH3, asi yakaona kuti hapanazve fad.

Kuongorora kwe2010, Garcia-Falgueras uyewo Swaab vanoti "utano hwe fetal hunovapo panguva ye intrauterine panguva yevarume kuburikidza nekuita zvakananga kwe testosterone pamakumbo ekurasika masero, kana mumharadzano yevakadzi kuburikidza nekushayikwa kweiyo hormone. Nenzira iyi, hutano hwedu hunozivikanwa (kutendwa kwehukama hwevarume kana vakadzi) uye zvepabonde zvakagadzirirwa kana kurongeka muhutano hwedu apo tichiri muchibereko. Hapana chinoratidza kuti hupenyu hwemagariro evanhu mushure mekuberekwa hune hutano hwehutano hunhu kana kuti zvepabonde. "Ovine version

Iyo gondohwe rehurumende Rinoshandiswa kuti riongorore Zvirongwa zvepakutanga zveavo neural mechanics dzinotsigira ungochani, zvichikura kubva pakuona kwako kuti kune imwe nzvimbo inenge yeAxNUMX yezana yemakondohwe emunyika inokweverwa zvepabonde kune mamwe makondohwe (madzishe) achifananidzwa nehuwandu hwemakondohwe ari evakadzi -oriored. Mune mhando dzakawanda dzemhuka, uyewo humwe hukuru hwehutano hwepabonde hunogona kunge huripo huripo huripo huripo hwepabonde dorosi (SDN) kubva kune preoptic hypothalamus, iyo ichave yakakura kune varume kana ichienzaniswa nevarume.

Roselli et al. akawana nyuchi yeSADN (oSDN) pa Preoptic hypothalamus iyo yakaenzana muhuwandu, kunyange zvazvo yakawanda yakawanda kupfuura mumakondohwe. Mahomoni angaratidza mumakondohwe nemakondohwe uye anokonzera neurons yeiSDN. Asi zvigumisiro hazvina kuwirirana chikamu chetsvaar aromatase kubva pane zvepabonde zvehutano uye huropi kubva kumakumbo, nekuda kwekushayikwa kwekuzvidzivirira kwevamwe vanoita zvekurara pabonde kana huwandu hweOSN nokuda kwechiitiko chechigadzirwa che aromatase kubva mupfungwa ye Zvibereko zvekuberekwa panguva yose inokosha. Ichokwadi chaizvoizvo kuti oSDN ungochani uye morphology inogona kunge yakarongwa. Ruzhinji rwemashoko rinoratidza kuti makondohwe, akadai semakondohwe, ari masimini uye anorondedzerwa pamusoro pegonadotrophin secretion, uye kuwedzera, kugamuchira, asi hazvirevi zvinyorwa nekuda kwevadzidzi zvinoratidza kuti kuzvibata kwakadaro kungave kwakarongwa. Kunyange zvazvo chinangwa cheOSDN chisingazonzwisisiki, nhamba yefoni yefoni, nguva, pamwe chete nemavhuro ayo anoita seanopindirana nehutano hwepabonde, pamwe ne dimorphism muhuwandu wayo uyewo zvakare masero angasvibisa zvinyorwa. Kupfuurira mberi kuongororwa kwakadikanwa senzira yekunzwisisa zvimwe zvido uye nguva yekusarudzwa kweOSD uye nzira yekugadzirisa zvinokonzera kuti kuratidzirwa komukadzi kusarudze mukukura.

Historical fixation theory

Nhoroondo yekare yekugadzirisa inosanganisira kudzidza kuRudziro uyewo zvinhu zvinodzora masculinization emafungiro avo. Hora dzisara dzakatarirwa nehuwandu hwemashoko apo chikonzero chikuru nekuziva zvepabonde, zvakabatanidzwa. Iyi nyanzvi inokurudzirwa nekusiyana kwekunzwisisa kugadzirisa uye huro hwehutano pakati pehutano pamwe nevarume vanoita zvepabonde. 1 tsanangudzo yezvipikano izvi zvingave kuti pfungwa yako yekuenderera mberi kwechiitiko chehomoni inobva pachibereko mukati mekuvandudzwa kunogona kuchinja masculinisation yemafungiro avo kune varume. Izvo zviyero zvemakemikari iwayo zvinotendwa kuti zvinoshandiswa nemadzimai ekuberekwa uye ekuberekwa kwekuberekwa kunopisa mishonga yekuzvidya mwoyo kwechikadzi, pamwe nekuzivikanwa. Iyi nyanzvi inogona kuwedzera kuiswa mune iyi yekuberekwa kwekurongedza kutsvaga.

Kunze kwekunaka kunova kunetseka

Daryl Bem, nyanzvi yezvepfungwa paCornell University, Akaratidza kuitika kwezvinhu zvakasiyana-siyana pamusoro pepabonde zvinogona kuratidzwa nekusangana kubva pauduku. Mwana wechidiki unhu hunosunungura mwana kuti asarudze mamwe mabasa. Somugumisiro wemunhu uyu, izvo zvichagadziriswa nezvinhu zvakadai semadzitateguru, vana vashomanana vachakurumidza kuendeswa mberi nemabasa anowanikwa nevana vanoita zvepabonde chaiwo. Izvo vamwe vachaenda. Izvi zvichaita kuti mwana ave nemafungiro akasiyana-siyana ehutano akasiyana nevana, kunyange zvazvo vana vanoita zvepabonde-vasina kugadzirisa zvechokwadi vachauya kuzonzwa zvakasiyana. Sezvakataurwa naBem, kukurudzira nokukurumidza kana wechidiki ari nhengo dzichadzingwa nekunzwa uku kwepakati kuva 'yakasiyana'. Bem anotaura izvi kukurudzira kwepfungwa pasina mubvunzo kuchachinjwa mukusimudzirwa kwemasimba: vana vachaita kuti vaite zvepabonde mune zvepabonde zvavanowana sevakasiyana-siyana ("zvekare"). Iyi mazano inowanzonzi "inoshamisa" inova nharo.

Bem kushandiswa rubatsiro kubva mumabhuku akadhindwa asi haana kupa Dheta. Tsvakurudzo yaakatsanangura sezviratidzo pamusoro peizvi "zvinoshamisa" inosanganisira pfungwa yekutsvaga zvepabonde Kuda zvepabonde neBell et al uye masayenzi ezvesayenzi zvichiratidza kuti kunyanya kuwana vazhinji vevarume vanoita zvechinguvana nevadzidzisi vemasvomhu vanorondedzera kuva hutano-husina kugadzirisa mukati mehuduku hwavo. Kunyangwe kuongororwa kwemeta kweongororo yose ye 4-8 yakaratidza hutano hwevechidiki ndiyo inonyanya kusimbisa hutano hwevakomana nevakadzi vaviri nevarume. Mu 6 "vanotarisira" nhoroondo - iyo inogona kuva yekutanga zvidzidzo izvo zvakatanga pamwe chete vachishandura vakadzi-vasingafananidzi vakomana anenge ane makore 63 uye akazviona muhukuru uye mukukura - 63 muzana yevakomana vavo vasina kufanana nevakomana vaida gayana kana pfungwa sezvavakakura.

Mazano ekusimbisa uye kubudirira

Izvo zvakanyorwa pasi apa se:

General

Kuita zvepabonde Kunodzidzisa kuwandisa kwepabonde ikozvino kunowedzera kukanganisa kwekubudirira kubereka, uye nekuda kweizvi, vanogona kutarisa maradaptive mukati mekushanduka kwezvinhu shure kwechirongwa cheDarwinian chiri nyore (kukwikwidzana pakati pevanhu) chekugadzirisa kwakachena - kune chirevo chokuti ungochani huchaderedza nguva iyo. Dzimwe dzidziso dziri mberi kuti dzitsanangure kupesana uku, uyewo kuti zvigoneke zvave zvaratidzwa neuchapupu hwekuedza.

Dzimwe nyanzvi dzakaratidza kuti ungochani hunobatsira, kuburikidza nekupa pfuma nenzira imwe chete yevana vako kana nzou. Nenzira, iyo yakarongeka (iyo inonyanya kushandiswa yemagamuchirwa) iyo inokonzera chirwere chekare chinonzi anemia kana zvinyorwa zve 2 zvinowanikwa, zvinowedzerawo kudzivirira hutachiona hwemarariya ane chirwere chiduku cheanemia kana kuchengetwa kunowanikwa (izvo zvinonyanya kunzi kuwana heterozygous gayn) .

Nyanzvi Ivewo yakaratidza Darwin pachake akajekesa Kin dzakasiyana pa The Origin of Species, saka pasi peDarwin yekuvandudza, zvichida zvichida kwete vanhu chete, asi asi mapoka emhuri (ropa remitsetse) anogona kuraramira kusarudza.

Brendan Zietsch weCayensland Institute of Medical Research anotsanangura kuti pfungwa yokuti varume vanoratidzira masimba vanonyanya kuda kutarisana nemadzimai vanozopedzisira vachinakirwa nevakadzi, vachipiwa majeni akabatanidzwa kazhinji haavakonedzi kuti vaite kukanganisa hutano hwepabonde.

Pakutsvakurudza kwe2008, vanyori varo vakati "Kune Iko vakafungidzira" apo maitiro ezvokuita zvehungochani anodzikisa kugona kwevanodanana nevarume vanoita zvepabonde, vanogona kupa ruzivo mune zvepabonde zvinotora ivo ". Zvigumisiro zvavo zvinoratidza kuti "mazita ekugadzirisa ungochani anogona kupa ruzivo rwekubereka mukati mehupombwe, izvo zvingabatsira kuburitsa nekusimudzira ungochani kubva kuvanhu".

Asi, Pakudzidza kwakangofanana, vanyori vakaona kuti "zvisingayti zvinyorwa zvisiri izvo zvinogona kuregererwa" sechikonzero chekuita zvepabonde mune zvechani-yevakadzi pamwe chete nemapoka maviri ane vakaroorana vakawanda, kunyanya inotsanangura "hukama hwemagariro kune mamwe mapatya kuti aite imwe nzira yakasiyana-siyana "(uye saka tsvagay nhamba inowedzera yevabonde pamwe chete) mufananidzo weimwe tsanangudzo yakasiyana.

Heterosexual advantage hypothesis yakapiwa kutsigirwa kubva kuChinyorwa cheChina cheItaly ichiratidzira zvakakwirira mumadzimai emhuri yemhuri yevarume veGay. Sezvakambotaurwa neHamer, kunyange kukura zvishomanana Mukukwanisa kubereka muvasikana vanoita "gay gay" inogona kukurumidza kubhadhara kuchengetedza kwayo.

Gay mushandi wekodzero

Kunyange "amai vegayini hypothesis" zvipo zvokuti vanhu ivo pachavo vasina vana vanogona kuramba vachiwedzera kuitika kune vadiwa vavo mumazera anotevera nekupa zvishandiso (egfood, kutarisira, kuchengetedza, nhoo) mukati mechitubu chemhuri iri pedyo hukama.

Iyi nyanzvi ichiri kuwedzera kwechirevo chechimiro chechigodhi, icho chakagadzirirwa kutsanangura. Pfungwa yekutanga iyo yakaratidzwa naJBS Haldane pa 1932 uye pashure yakajekeswa nevamwe iyo inosanganisira John Maynard Smith, WD Hamilton naMary Jane West-Eberhard. Iyi nyanzvi yakashandiswa kuparidzira nzira dzakasiyana dzehutano hwemagariro evanhu apo inenge nhengo dzose dzave dzisina kubereka.

Vasey pamwe chete naVanderLaan (2010) vakaongorora pfungwa iyi kuPacific Island yeSamoa, pose pavakadzidzawo mafafa fafafa, uyewo vakadzi, varume vakuru varipo uyewo sevarume vakuru vanozivikanwa pamusoro pehupfumi hwakafanana nemhando yepabonde. Vasey naVanderLaan vakawana fa'afafine akatsanangura kuti ivo vainyatsoda kutsigira hama, asi vaine ruzivo rwekubatsira vana vasiri mishonga yemhuri, kupa humwe uchapupu hwekutanga kuti vatsigire kuti chirevo chavo chisarudzo.

Dzidziso iyi inopindirana neKutsvakurudza kwakasiyana-siyana pane Izvozvo zvinoratidza kuti inonyanya kukosha pakati pekuru nanasekuru pamwe nehanzvadzi. Sezvo kubatana kwakabatana pamwe chete nevana vehama vanogovera mazai ega uye saka vane zvigadziriswa zvezvakaitika, pane dambudziko remhuri apo chiitiko chirongwa chacho chave chakatumidzwa. Inotungidzirwa kuti mahomoni uye maitiro ekudzvinyirira kwezvakatipoteredza (akabatana neRe-Source mhinduro) anogona kuzvibata sezviri kushanda.

Tichifunga kuti iyo pfungwa inogadzirisa dambudziko rehurochani iyo ndeye Kunyange zvazvo iri kushandiswa pakutsvaga, Zvichida zvisati zvasarudzwa zvakapoteredza makumi ezviuru zvemazana, mashoma masayendisiti anotenda kuti iyo yakasununguka yemafambiro akaita sehupombwe uye ungochani. Mhando yakasiyana-bhero-iyo inowanikwa mumagariro evanhu uye mathematics inoratidza mararamiro evanhu vanotaura.

Vasal uye VanderLaan (2011) vanopa uchapupu hwekuti inofanira kuenderana nemaitiro avuncular pain uye rophilic phenotype iripo pamwe chete nekushanduka kwayo kwakananga kunotsanangurwa nenharaunda yakasiyana yevanhu, uye ipapo hutsika hwemagariro hunenge husina kukwana, mukati maro pachako, semashoko een phenotype.

Physiological

Nhamba Yezvidzidzo Wakawana kuwirirana pakati pehutachiona hweHurks uyewo ruzha rwavo; dzidzo idzi dzinopa uchapupu hunoratidza:

Vasikana nevakomana vane gay vane, pamusana peMweya hemispheres. Vanhurume neVasikana vakasiyana-siyana vane, kazhinji, muhutano hukuru hukurupheres.

Nucleus ye hypothalamus yakawanikwa neSaab uyewo Hopffman kuti ave mukuru pane varume vanoita zvechikadzi, kana vachienzaniswa nevarume vasiri varume vanoita zvepabonde, kuti nucleus yepamusoro-soro inozivikanwa kuva yakakura zvikuru kune varume kana vachienzaniswa nevasikana.

Vakomana vanoparidza, mukati mezvakaitika, zvishoma nezvishoma uye zvekare Penises zvakaenzaniswa nevarume vakuru.

Kukura kweiyo INAH 3 kune pfungwa dzevarume vanoita zvechikadzi kune dzimwe nzvimbo zvakapoteredza chiyero chaiyo sevakadzi vaNAH 3, ichocho chichava chakakura, uyewo maviri anowanikwa zvakanyanya, achienzaniswa nehutano hwevakadzi hwevanhu vakuru.

Iyo yekare inotanga kuve yakakura kune vakadzi kana ichienzaniswa nevakomana nevakadzi vakamboudzwa kuti vave vakanyanya kukura muvarume vanoita zvoungochani vachienzaniswa nevarume vasiri varume vanoita zvepabonde, zvisinei nekuzotevera vakaongorora hapana mutsauko.

Uropi hwevarume vevarume vegayira vanoita mu fluoxetine Serotonin inosarudza zvakare inhibitor.

Kuitwa kwezeve uye inonzi central sensory System-mumadzimai evakadzi nevarume vanoita zvepabonde vanowanzova zvimwe zvakanyanya sekushandiswa kwemasimba anoshandiswa nevarume vakuru kana vachienzaniswa nevasiri varochani (avo vanopikisa kutsvaga uku kwaienderana nehutachiona husati hwavapo zvekuita zvepabonde).

Kutanga kwekutanga (Eye Blink mushure mheremhere huru) ichava masimba kubva kune vakaroorana nevasikana uye lesbians.

Bongo revanhu vasiri gay uye vasiri gayiri vanoita zvakasiyana ne2 kuisa gender pheromones (uye, iri mumunhu mashomanana emadziro, uye EST (inowanikwa mukadzi pee).

Kunyange amygdale, nzvimbo yepfungwa, yakanyanya kunyanya kufadza kune vanhurume vevanhu vakuru vechidiki kupfuura varume kana vakagadzirirwa zvinhu zvepabonde.

Kusiyana kwepakati kunobatanidza rhete neminwe yeminwe dzave zvakanyorwa kuti hazvibvumirane, kazhinji, pakati pevasiri varochani nevasikana vevakadzi.

Vanhu vechiLabbi uye varume vanoita zvepabonde vanowanzova vakawanda:

Tsvakurudzo yeMore kupfuura 50 varume yakaona kuti inenge 23 yepakati yaive neConning clockwise hair, iyo pane 8 kubva kune vanhu vakawanda. Izvi zvinogona kuwirirana necheboshwe.

Vakomana vanoita gay vakasimudza girth density paminwe yezvinyorwa paminwe yavo yeboshwe nemagunwe.

Nguva yezvikamu uyewo mitezo pamusoro pevarume vanoita zvoungochani yakakura mukupikisa nekukwirira kana ichienzaniswa neyevanhu vose, asi, imwe chete yevarume vakuru.

Political Facets

Zvinyorwa zvepamusoro: LGBT sevanhu vanofambisa uye LGBT Kodzero dzeMitemo

Pasinei nokuti zvipfeko zvepanyama zvinoratidzira seSvondo rekuita zvepabonde ndezve nyaya. Kunyange Murevereri, weU.S. homosexual uye lesbian magazine magazini, yakataurwa muna 1996 iyo 61 yezana yevanyori vayo vakatenda "inonyanya kubatsira kodzero dzevarume nevasikana kana hurochani hwawanikwa huchigadziriswa". Muchinjikwa-nyika inongororwa kubva kuUnited States, Philippines, zvakare kuSweden akacherechedza avo vaidavira kuti "vanoita zvechinguvana vanozvarwa nenzira iyo" vakabata mafungiro akanaka kune ungochani pane vanhu vaitenda "vanoita zvechinguvana vanosarudza kuva saizvozvo" kana kunyange "kudzidza kuva iyo nzira ".

Kuenzana nekudzivirira kuongorora muUnited States Mutemo unosarudza kana hurumende inoda kubudisa "kushungurudzika kwemaitiro" emakirasi uyewo saizvozvo ane kodzero yekuwedzera kuongororwa kunofanirwa pane zvimwe zvinhu, pakati pezvo zvichange zvisina kuchinja.

Zviratidzo zvekuti zvepabonde zvinotaridzirwa (uye naizvozvo zvichida zvisingashandurwi nemugariro wepamutemo) zvichasimbisa mvumo yepamutemo nekuda kwekuwedzera kuongororwa kwemutemo kusarura pane izvozvi.

Zvinokonzerwa nekuita zvepabonde zvine ruzivo rwakakosha pamusana pehutano hwevanhu vanoita zvepabonde kubva mumaonero evanhu vanochengetedza zvepabonde. Nezve flip side, vamwe vanochengetedza sangano seMurevere Robert Scheck vakakurudzira vanhu vanogona kugamuchira zvimwe zviratidzo zvezvesayenzi apo unhu hunopikisa ungochani.

Vakawanda vanotsigira kodzero dzevaduku vanomiririra kubatanidza izvo zvinokonzera kuti zvepabonde zvakatemwa kana zvakagadziriswa zvishoma. Vanotaura kuti kuita zvepabonde kunogona kuchinja nguva yehupenyu hwomumwe munhu pese pese. Panguva imwecheteyo vamwe vanomiririra chero kuedza kwechiremba kana kuti 'kune pathologise'deviant' zvepabonde, uyewo vanosarudza kurwisa kuti vabvumirwe mukati mehutano hwevanhu kana hutsika. LeVay inotaurwa pamusoro pekutaura kwemashoko kubva kune varume vanoita zvemasikana nevadzidzisi vanoita kuti rudzi rwekutsoropodza urwu kuongororwa "rwakakonzera kuti vanhu vanoita zvepabonde vari munharaunda".

Gender dysphoria (GD) inoshungurudza iyo munhu anogarisana nehutano uye hutano hwavakagoverwa. Muchiitiko ichi, hutano uye zvepabonde hazvifananidzi zvakanyatsoenderana nehutano hwepabonde, uyewo murume anotengesa zvepabonde. Kune uchapupu hunoratidza kuti vasikana vanosimbisa nekuita zvepabonde zvakasiyana pakati pevarume vavo vanoita zvepabonde vanogona kuita kwete nekuda kwezviito zvekuita kana zvepfungwa, asi nekuwedzera mamwe marudzi ehupenyu anokonzerwa neavo genetics kana kutengesa mahomoni vasati vasvika.

Chirwere chekuziva chirwere chepabonde chirwere chepabonde (GID) chakashandiswa Kubva ku DSM sepabonde dysphoria uchishandisa re-DSM-5. Kuzivikanwa kwave kuchiratidzwa zvakare kuti kubvisa kunyadzisa zvakare kuwirirana. Sangano reAmerican Psychiatric Association, munyori weDMM-5, akati "kusawirirana kwepabonde hakusi iwe pachako chirwere chepfungwa. Mamwe masayendisiti ezvepabonde uye vanhu vanokurudzira kuparadzaniswa kwechirwere ichi chete kubva pavanotaura kuti chiziviso chinowedzera shanduko yepabonde uye chirwere chepabonde vari kusiyana.

Mazano makuru evarume ekurapa Kuwanikwa nehutano dysphoria ari kukurudzira zvepabonde zvinonakidzwa zvekuti munhu wacho semugumisiro wepabonde kutaura uye maitiro ekurapa kwehomoni, kana kushanda kana psycho-therapy.

Uchapupu

Zviratidzo zveGD muvana zvinogona kuwedzera chimwe chezvimwe zvinotevera: Kuvhiringidzika mumararamiro avo, kushamwaridzana kwevanhu pamwe chete nekushushikana, kushushikana, kusurukirwa nevezera ravo. Maererano neAmerican Psychological Association, vana vanoita zvepabonde vanoita sevanonyanya kuda kuita zvechisimba nekushungurudzwa pazvikoro, kutarisira vana, vacheti remitambo, nzvimbo dzakasununguka uye maitiro ehurumende yekutonga vachienzaniswa nevamwe vana vakawanda.

Vana vacheche vanoshandisa GD vari muGreater Risk dzakadai sokuzvidya mwoyo mupfungwa, kuzviuraya uye kunyangadza. Zvidzidzo zvinoreva kuti kutengesa zvepabonde kune vanhu vane simba guru rekuzviuraya; Kuongororwa kumwe chete kwe6,450 vanhu vanoita zvevanhukadzi vari muUnited States vakaona 4 1% vakaedza kuzviuraya kana zvichienzaniswa nehuwandu hwenyika yose ye1.6 muzana. Izvo zvakanga zvave zvakaziviswawo kuti kuedza kuzviuraya kwaive kwakanyanya kuderera kudarika varume nevakadzi vanoita zvepabonde vakatsanangura kuti vadiwa vavo vakange varamba vakasimba gare gare vakabuda kunze, kunyange zvakadaro varume vevakadzi nevadzimai vaiva pangozi yakaderera vairamba vachiita zvakawanda kuzviuraya kwakazvimiririra kwakaenzaniswa nevanhu vanowanzoonekwa. Transgender vanhu vanogonawo kuva pangozi yezvirwere zvepfungwa izvi sevanodya nyaya.

Gender dysphoria muvanhu ava vakatumwa mangwanani-ngwanani vachatora pakati pe 2 trajectories; zvichida kunonoka-kutanga kana kunyange kutanga-kutanga. Kutanga-kutanga kwepabonde Dysphoria inowanikwa muhuduku. Penguva, kutanga kwekutanga Kuita zvepabonde dysphorisa kunowana sechinobonde kuti uwane nguva. Chikoro ichi chinoramba chichikwezva kune varume mukati mekukura. Zvepabonde dysphoria Hazvirevi Zviratidzo zvevechidiki, zvisinei, nhoroondo shomanana dzevechiduku iyo dzakatadza kunyora kune vamwe vanhu vakawanda. Vanhu Vanosangana nenguva yekukurumidza Kuita zvepabonde dysphoria zvichida kuendeswa kune vasikana vanobatanidzawo maitiro. Maitiro nekushingayra.

zvikonzero

Nyaya Yepamusoro: Zvinokonzerwa neTr physiological property

Nguva imwe neimwe mumwe munhu anotsungirira nokuda kwepabonde. GID iripo. Vatsvakurudzi havabvumirani pamusoro pekukosha kwekutambudzika nekuremara kubva kuvanhu vane GID. vanyori vanoverengeka vakanzwisisa kuti vanhu World Health Organisation vakawana ruzivo sezvavanonyadziswa uye vanotambudzwa; uye izvi, kana tsika inoda kuti matare evanhukadzi nevakadzi vawane zvishoma zvishoma.

Kuongorora kwakapetwa kaviri (kunofanirwa pamusoro pevanhu vanomwe panguva dzakasanganiswa Kushamwaridzana muUri Nursing samuenzaniso gumi nemana) Yakaratidza kuti GID inogona kuva makumi matanhatu nemaviri kubva muzana remadzinza, inoratidza simba rekusimudzirwa kana kuti inowanikwa nhaka mumamiriro ezvinhu akadaro, zvichienderana nekugoverwa kwayo.

kuongorora chirwere

IYankee yezvokurapa inyanzvi yeChirangaridzo inobvumira kujekeswa kweGender kushushikana mukati mekunge zviyero zviri mu DSM-5 square zvinosangana zvose. Iyo DSM-5 inotaura pa2 yezviyero zvekutambudzika kwepabonde zvinofanira kunzirudzirwa kwemavhiki e6 munguva yevechiri kuyaruka kana vanhu vakuru kuti vaongorore.

  • Chido chekuita semumwe wepabonde umwe akatumirwa zveBonde
  • Chido chekufungidzirwa sehupombwe kunze kwekuita zvepabonde

  • Chinhu chinonyanya kukosha pakati pezvakaitika kana zveimwe zvepabonde zvinoratidzirwa uye imwe yehutano hwepabonde
  • Chido chezvinhu zvako kunze kwebonde rakapiwa
  • Chido chekubvisa zvido zvepabonde zveimwe Sezvo zvichiguma nekusavhiringidza nemumwe munhu wekare kana kutaura zvepabonde
  • Ichokwadi kuti iwe unowana mhinduro uye manzwiro ezvepabonde kunze kwehupombwe hwemumwe
  • Mukuwedzera, mamiriro acho ezvinhu anofanira kunge akaenzana nehutano hwakakosha hunokosha kana kukanganisika.

Iyo DSM-5 yakakanganisa izvi kuongorora kunze kwechirwere chepabonde chepabonde uye mukirasi yega. Kuonekwa kwacho kwakatumidzwa kubva kuhuzivi hwehutano kuhutano hwepabonde, kamwe wakatsoropodza kuti nguva yapfuura yakanga ichikuvadza. Kunyoresa nekuita zvepabonde kwakabviswa. Kuonekwa kwevana kwakaparadzana kubva kune izvozvo kune vanhu vakuru, se "kuora mwoyo mune zvevana". Kutanga kwechiratidzo Kuratidzira kukwanisa kwevana Vana Kutsungirira, kana kukwanisa kutaura nezvavanoda ivo vanoona. Kushungurudzika kwevakadzi kana kurondedzera kuora mwoyo kunogona kuva Kana mumwe munhu asingakwanisi kuita zvinhu asi akazoongororwa Ane kliniki yakanyanya kuora mwoyo kana kuti akaremara.

Zvirwere zvakasiyana-siyana zvakabatana nehutano hwega:

Uhu hwemhando dzavo dzepabonde, zvinowanzochengetedzwa zvakanyanya nenzira dzechido chekushanda uye mishonga yehomoni uye kushungurudzika kwakasimba pamusoro pebonde rakapiwa, rinoratidzirwa kusati kwamboita zvepabonde kana kuti zvepabonde, kutadzisa kushushikana kana kufunganya.

Kuvandudzwa kweiyi ICD's classification of sex States inofanotaurwa kubva kuIndaneti-11 inouya.

Mukuwedzera kwekutsvaga kwehutano chirwere chakabviswa, pamwe pamwe nechepamusoro-chema-chechi inotengesa. ICD-11 inotsanangura zvepabonde kusagadzikana se "marara akajeka uye akagoverwa", pamwechete nemuenzaniso wakafanana neDMM-V tsanangudzo, asi Haadi kutambudzika kukuru kana kuti hurema.

divi

Mhinduro yekugadzirisa kuitira kuti munhu mumwe nomumwe aongororwa achishandisa GID angangosanganisira Psycho-therapy kana zvichida kukurudzira zvepabonde zvinonakidzwa zvomunhu mumwechete semugumisiro wepabonde kutaura uye hutachiona hutachiona kurapwa, kana kushanda. Izvi zvingangodaro zvinosanganisira kupa mazano, zvichiita kuti kuchinja kunenge kwomuviri, kana mararamiro ekuchinja mararamiro, zvichikonzerwa nekupindira kwakafanana saisa kana electrolysis kuvhiyiwa kupera, kurapwa, kana kuporesa kushandiswa kwezvimwe zvinokonzera. Chinangwa cherapi inogona kunge iri kuderedza nyaya dzinokonzerwa semuenzaniso, kubva pane zvaunofunga nezvehutsika hwevanhu, senzira yekudzikisa mhosva inobatana nekupedza mazano kune mumwe munhu, kana kupa zano kune mumwe wako.

Kushanda kana kurapwa nekuda kwepabonde dysphoria inopesana nekuda kwekusagadzikana kwekuchinja kwezvinhu. Mazano anoratidzwa kuti abatsire vanachiremba. Vamwe vanhu vanoshandisa mazano anotsanangurwa muGianna Israel uyewo Donald Tarver's Transgender Care. Nzira dzekurapa nzira inowirirana ne "kuderedza kuderedza" version.

Pre-pubescent kids

Inobvunzurudza ndeyokuti kuudza vana kuti vafare Kuvakumikidza kuti varambe vachiratidza maitiro asina kukodzera huri hwavo hunoendeswa - kana kunyange kutsvakurudza humwe shanduko nehutano hwavo - hwakakakavadzana zvakafanana. Vakiriniki vashomanana vanorondedzera chikamu chikuru chevana mushure mekunge kazhinji vasingaratidze dysphoria.

"Ndakatanga kutaurirana uye ndinopa mahomoni, anonziwo kuberekwa kwevana, kuitira kuti asimbise kutanga kwekumuka kwemwedzi mwana asati afungidzirwa kuva akwegura zvakakwana kuti aite sarudzo yakadzidza pamusoro kana kugadzirisa zvepabonde reassignment zvichiita kuti kugadzirisa zvepabonde reassignment kuchakurumidza kuva munhu anofarira zvikuru.

Emotional remedies

Psycho-therapy ndechokuti mushonga weKubatsigira murume uyu kwakarurama mune zvepabonde zvehutano hwavo hwakawanikwa mune zvishoma, Zvepabonde dysphoria, zvakare yakatungamirirwa. Psycho-therapy pane kusangana kupi zvayo kunoda kutarisira nyaya. Iyo inogona kushandiswa kune dzimwe nzira kunyange zvazvo vanachiremba vazhinji vachishandisa psycho therapy kuti vatarise zvepabonde dysphoria. Psychotherapeutic kurapwa kweGID kunoda kubatsira munhu wacho. Kuedza kubata chirwere cheGID kuburikidza nekushandura hutano hwepabonde hweumwe munhu kuratidza simba rekuuya risina kubudirira.

Cosmetic remedies

Zvirwere zvezvechirwere zvechipiri uye zvekutanga zvepabonde zvinoderedza kuderedza kusagadzikana pakati pemuviri uye kugadzirisa zvepabonde kweumwe munhu. Biological therapies yeGID isina mhando ye psycho therapy inowanikwa. Masayendisiti akafukura izvozvo kana vanhu vachikwira mumishonga yavo yeGID, vanonzwa vakavhiringidzika uye vakarasikirwa kana nzira dzavo dzokurapa dzisati dzazara.

Psychotherapy, hormone inoshandiswa kurapwa, uye reaReassignment operation inogona kubudirira kuporesa GID pose apo zvido zveWPATH zvekuchengetedza zvese zvave zvichitevedzwa pedyo.

Zvose zvakakwana kugutsikana pamwe chete nemarapirwo ehupenyu uye hwepfungwa zvakakosha.

Epidemiology

Nhamba dzevanhu vane Trans Gender kuwanda kwehuwandu Munharaunda yakaderera ye1: 2000 (inenge 0.05percent) inobva kuNetherlands neBelgium ichienda ku0.5percent yevakuru veMassachusetts. Kubva muongororo yepamusoro yekoroji yevadzidzi vekuNew Zealand, 8,500 yakasarudza kechikoro chesekondari vadzidzi kubva ku9 1 kamwechete yakasarudza zvikoro zvekare zvakawanikwa 1.2percent yevadzidzi vakapindura "hongu" mumubvunzo uyu "Unofunga kuti iwe uri kudarika here?" . Izvi zviyero zvose zvinotarirwa. Zvinoratidzirwa kuti zvinenge zvichiita 0.005percent kusvika ku0.014percent yevarume nevakadzi vakadzikidzwa varume pakuberekwa uye 0.002percent kusvika ku0.003percent yevanhu vakagoverwa vakadzi mumambakwedza vanozivikanwa sevari mune zvepabonde dysphoria, [kurwisana-kutaura] kunofungidzirwa ku 2013 kuongorora nzira, kunyange zvazvo zvingava zvechokwadi anotaridzika sediki kuderedzwa. Kutsvakurudza kunoratidzira avo vanononoka mukukura kwavo kazhinji vave vachikwanisa kusvika 3 nguva dzakanyanya kufanana kuva murume akatumwa mangwanani, kunyangwe pakati pevanhu kuti chiyero chepabonde chiri pedyo ne1: 1.

History

Icho Chirevo chepabonde chirwere chekuzivikanwa iye zvino ndechekare yekutaura kweHurumende yako kubva kuDMM. I APA ya DSM 1st yakatsanangura nyika kubva mubhuku ra 3rd ("DSM-III") ku1980. Saka sekuvabvumira kuchengetedza yekare Yakagamuchirwa kurondedzera mishonga yemishonga kune vechidiki kunze kwe1-2 yekare. 127 nyevero dzakawanikwa nemuitiro we2010 nokuda kwepabonde dysphoria.

Kunyange T & P yakapedzisa Muedzo kuenzanisa kuti maPavilogical, maitiro uye zvemagariro evanhu uye nengozi dzinodiwa ne 1 2 - kusvika kune vane 14 vane makore ane makore. Demo iyi yakanzi inokunda kuti vashandi vehutano vakasarudza kubudisa mishonga inowanzosvikika uye kuvana vaduku se makumi emakore 9. Senguva pfupi sezvo mazano anonzi 2009 akati mishonga yegender dysphoria inofanirwa kunge isingazobudiri kusvika pakupera kwekuyaruka kwapera. Ferring Pharmaceuticals inogadzira Triptorelin yemishonga, inokurudzirwa pasi pezita rinonzi Gonapeptyl, mu # nhu mbiri miviri iyo zuva nezuva. Nzira yacho inoramba ichinatsiridzirwa, kuitira kuti kutaridzika kwevanhu kuve kutangazve maitiro ake.

Society and civilization

Zvemagariro "zvepabonde" zvinowanikwa pamwe chete nekukurudzirwa netariro dzechimiro, uyewo ndizvo zvakabatanidzwa kune zvepabonde. Nenzira yekuti, sangano remavara akasiyana ne "musikana" kana "mukomana" vacheche anotanga zvakasiyana-siyana zvekare mumitambo yakabva kumadokero kweEurope Zvinotarisirwa zvinosanganisira zvose kutaura uye maitiro.

Mamwe madzinza akagara ane zvitatu zvinotsanangurwa zvepabonde: musikana, mukomana, uye Effeminate gentleman. Nenzira yekufananidzira, kuSamoa, '' uyewo chechi yevarume vari vakadzi, fa'afafine iyo inogamuchirwa zvachose muchipatara. Kunyange iyo fa'afafine kazhinji haifaniri kushayiwa chero dambudziko kana kuti kushorwa pamwe chete nekutsauka kubva muchikamu chepabonde chinowanzobatanidzwa. Izvi zvinoreva kushungurudzika kwakabatana neGID kumamiriro ekuMadokero hakusi kwechirwere chete, zvisinei nematambudziko. Zvisinei, zvidzidzo zvakaona kushungurudzika kunoenderera mberi mumagariro evanhu, kuEastern kana zvakasiyana, izvo zvinogona kunge zvichinyanya kubvuma zvepabonde kusagadzikana.

Yakapiwa mutsigiri wehutongi hwakadana Norrie, uyo aifanira kutariswa neboka rezvepabonde, 'risina kureva', achiita kuti dare rirwe pamwe chete uchishandisa vose NSW Registrar of Births, Deaths and Marriages. Zvisinei, Dare rakakundikana kutora zvepabonde izvi zvakave sangano rehupfumi: '' rakazarura kuti chirongwa chezvekuita zvezvechikadzi "hachina kugadzirisa kusaona kwake kwepabonde".

Chirongwa chechirwere

Chirwere chepfungwa chekuongorora zvirwere zvepabonde (ikozvino zvepabonde dysphoria) zvakatanga mu DSM-III pa1980. Arlene Istar Lev pamwe naDeborah Rudacille vakasiyana pamwe nekuve kwematongerwe enyika. Vamwe vatsvakurudzi, somuenzaniso Robert Spitzer uyewo Paul J. Fink, vanotaura kuti maitiro uye maitiro anowanikwa mukurara kwepabonde ndewezvisizvo uye anoratidza chirwere.

Vanhu Vanoita Zvepabonde Dysphoria Vanokwanisa kana Vasingaremekedzi Maitiro avo chaiwo uye manzwiro nekuda kwezvirwere. Kukanganisa uye Batsiro zviripo pakuzadzisa hutano hwechikadzi. Nemhaka yokuti chirwere chepabonde chinokonzerwa nehutachiona mune zvidzidzo zvehutano hwehutano (semuenzaniso, DSM-IV-TR, iri pasi pemusoro unoti "gadziriro yehutano"), zvakawanda zvebhizimisi mabhizimusi achabhadhara nemwoyo wose vashoma zvekushandisa kwehutano hwekuita zvekuita zvepabonde nekusagadziriswa kwepabonde • Kuderedza kushayikwa kwepabonde dysphoria semamiriro ezvinhu, mushonga wekuita zvekuita zvepabonde zvingave zvichida hauna kutarisirwa, uye unogona kuonekwa sekurapa, panzvimbo pekurapa. varume nevakadzi vane zvimwe zvido zvishoma kupfuura vamwe vakawanda kuti vave nehutano hwehutano hwehutano hwehutano hwehutano hwematongerwo emitemo, uye vanowanzosangana nekusava nehanya uye kuvengana kubva kumakambani ekuchengetedza hutano.

Iyo DSM-IV-TR kuongororwa Chikamu chekutambudzwa Haisi Izvo zvakasiyana kubva pane zvakasiyana zvinosanganiswa nekusarurwa nekuramba. Purofesa wePsychology Darryl Hill anofunga kuti zvepabonde dysphoria haisi kunyanya kushanda, asi pane zvinoreva zvinoreva kutambudzika mumana anoitika apo vamwe vazhinji pamwe navanaamai navanababa vane dambudziko. Transgender vanhu vakaratidzirwa kusarura, kushungurudzwa uye chisimba, zvakare vakave vasiri munzanga. Muna May 2009, hurumende dzehurumende dzeFrance dzakashambadzira kuti hutano hwepabonde huchaparadzaniswa sehutano hwepfungwa, asi huchibva kune dzimwe sangano rekodzero dzeFrance hapana chimwe chinhu chakashandurwa. Danish yakagadzirwa neshoko muna 2016.

Kudzoka kuI ICD-11, GID inobatanidzwa zvakare sepabonde kusagadzikana Chirwere chakabatanidzwa nehutano hwakanaka. Dhiyabhorosi Kutora maitiro kunokurudzira kuchengetedza upombwe muCI-11 kuchengetedza Kushandiswa kwemashumiro.

Intimate Associations Wiki mabhuku w.svg

Ichi chikamu chichave chisingashaiwi ruzivo Vanhu vane vakaroorana. Ndapota wedzera nzvimbo yacho. Zvinyorwa zvinogona kunge zvakagadzirirwa pane peji rehurukuro.

Kuwirirana kunosanganisira Mukadzi kusvika kuMurume uyewo nevadzidzisi vevabhangi Vanhu vane GID vachatsungirira kuburikidza nehuwandu hwekushandura, kana kuchinja kuchinja. Kuwirirana pakati pevakadzi uyewo vanhu vane GID vanotambudzika nguva iyo GID yairatidza kana inonzwisiswa. Vatsvakurudzi vanotaura kuti hukama hwehukama uhwu hunoratidzika kuvimba nezvinoenderana nemukadzi. Nyaya dzinowanzowoneka, pamwe chete naCisgender shamwari yekushatirwa kana kusagutsikana, apo mumwe wako nguva nguva mumudzimai unhu huripo, apo shamwari yevidido inopera, kana mumwe wako ari kutsamwa uyewo mupfungwa mupfungwa kana kubva kumurume. Cisgender madzimai anonyanya kunetseka nezvekushamwaridzana kwevanhu uye zvinogona kunge zvisingafadzi nehuse hwemadzimai mune zvevamwe kana shamwari inowedzera panguva yekuchinja. Kunyangwe vakadzi vechidiki vese vanove vakanyanyobvuma kugadzirisa uye kuchinja mafambiro evakaroorana navo, saka vatsvakurudzi vehurumende, ndevamwe vanhu vane hutano hushoma hwepabonde kana vanhu vanobatwa zvepabonde kune varume uye nevanhu.

Mutemo

Mutemo uripo unorambidza zvikoro Kubva pane zviito zvakapiwa, somuenzaniso zvepabonde, kuenzana kwevakadzi, uye zvepabonde, uye rinotsanangura zvirevo zvakasiyana zvezvinangwa zvepamutemo pamwe chete nekuparidzirwa kwevanhu ava mune izvi. Mutemo wakashingayra unotarisira kuti kubatanidzwa mune zvakapiwa murairo wekuita chiito kana mutambo, kana zvichifanira kuvadzidzi vehutano, zvive zvakapoteredza vadzidzi vevakadzi vose. Bhiri iri rinogona kuita kuti mudzidzi abvumirwe kubatanidzwa mune zvepabonde-akaparadzanisa zvigadzirwa zvepurogiramu software, mabasa, somuenzaniso makwikwi emitambo uye makirasi, uye anoshandisawo nzvimbo munzvimbo inoenderana nehutano hwepabonde, pasinei nehutano hwakanyorwa kumabhuku edzidzidzi.

Kunyange yeCalifornia yeKaturike yeKereke yakafananidza iyo invoice Isingakoshi, sezvo mutemo uripo kuti urwise rusarura. Mumwe mutauriri wemusangano uyu akataura kuti kunetseka kunofanira kutarisirwa nevakuru vezvematongerwo enyika.

Kodzero dze LGBT kudzivisa

Nhungamiro inotevera inosanganisira zvinetso. Yeuka kubatsira kubatsiridza Ita pamusoro pemisoro. (Dzidza kuti inguva ipi yekubvisa aya mazita e template)

  • Nhungamiro inotevera inogona kuva isina kuenzana kune maonero.
  • Uyu mushumo unoda kutsanangurwa kwekusimbisa.
  • Chikamu chetambo pa

Mitemo yakapoteredza nyika yeBelbT kuberekwa kwekuberekwa kwevana Kuenda kune dzimwe nyika Zvinetso zveEngsex zviri pamutemo Kodzero yevarwi Kutsigira kwekubatana Same-sex union Kodzero dzepamutemo Transgender dzemutemo LGBT kodzero dzepamutemo dzemhirizhonga Kushorwa kwevarume nevakadzi ve LGBT

LGBT kodzero yekudzivisa Ingava kushorwa kwako kune kodzero:

Masangano ane simba muGGBT kudzivirira kodzero Kazhinji anopikisa kugadziriswa kwemitemo iyo inoita zvepabonde imwechete inobvumirwa, kupfuurira kwekusimbisa mutemo unotarirwa kugadzirisa kupesana kwemhosva dzeLGBT, somuenzaniso basa uye dzimba, kupfuura nemutemo weAn antiBullying kuchengetedza mitemo yeBGBT kushora mararamiro ehutano-zvepabonde, pamwe chete nemitemo yakasiyana-siyana yeGLBT. Zvose izvi zvikwata zvinowanzogara mune zvekunamata kana zvechitendero zvakachengetedza mumunhu.

Kutenda kwezvitendero kunogona kukurudzira kusazvidzivirira, Kuita zvevanhu, kutengesa, kutonga, maonero ehurumende, kana zvimwe kutsanangurwa.

Mitemo iyo makwikwi ekodzero dze LGBT Inogona kuenzaniswa nekubatana nemichato yevagari vehurumende kana masangano ehurumende, LGBT mubereki nekugamuchirwa, kushandiswa kwezvombo, kushandiswa kwekubatsiridzirwa kwekuberekwa kwehutano, uyewo kuwanikwa kwekuita zvekuita zvezvechikadzi uye humoni kushandiswa kugadzirisa varume nevadzimai ve transgender.

History

Vadzidzi vakarayirwa kubva muNazi kupemberera mhirizhonga muPamberi peChiitiko cheKutsvakurudza kwepabonde kuBerlin pa 6 May 1933, kutora zvinyorwa zvayo uye mapikicha uye kusvikira vapamba.

Sangano rekare rekodzero dzevamwe vanobva kumakore ekuma1900 ekupedzisira muGermany.

Kubva ku1920s uye mu1930s, uchawana hutungamiri hweBGBT munzvimbo dzakawanda dzakadai seBerlin; Mutauro wechiGerman-wechiJudha Magnus Hirschfeld aiva pachena mumwe wevatauriri vavo kuwana kodzero dzeLGBT mumutemo panguva ino. Mushure mokunge mutungamiri weNazi wakava nesimba muna 1933, chimwe chezviito zvekutanga zvekupemberera kwaive chakanga chiri kupisa Hirschfeld's Institut für Sexualwissenschaft, iyo yakawanda maNazi anozivikanwa aifungidzirwa kuti aone nezvepabonde. Pakutanga akashandura muhunhu hwaErnst Röhm pamwe chete nevateveri vake, saka varume vakawanda vanoita zvoungochani vakanga vari kubuda muNazi Party mushure meusiku hweMakore Knives pamwe chete neChishanu 175 Mitemo yakatanga kushandiswa, vachishanda nevarume vanoita zvechikadzi vanoiswa mumisasa yevasungwa ne1938.

Pasi pemutongi weNazi muGermany, iyo yeMutemo Kodzero dzevarume nevakadzi veBBB yakambotaurwa nenzira mbiri. Nokugadzirisa uye kusimbisa mutemo uripo waizodonhedzera kushandisa hukama hwehuchani hwaiva; ungochani hwave hwakarapwa mumwero, asi sechipatara chirwere panzvimbo. Iyo nzira yekurapa yaiva purogiramu ye eugenics, yakashandurwa nemaoffin kuti iite euthanasia, uye kutanga nehutachiona chimwe chevanhu vari mumisasa yevasungwa. Kuendesa kwekutya kwave kuri kubviswa kwezvinhu zvenhaka kubva munharaunda - inhaka, hutungamiri hwevanhu, hutsika uye kliniki, uyewo kuti kubviswa kwekushaya hutano pazvikamu zvakawanda. mishonga yaifanirwa kusanganiswa kubva kune inoshamisa munyika yose yekurapa, uyewo kufambira mberi kwemufananidzo weiwo izvo vanachiremba veNazi vezvokurapa vakapedzisa pakupedzisira kuva: kuti mupore akachinja kuva muurayi. Sterilization inshuwarisi mitemo yaive yakabatana nguva dzose nekurapa uye antimicrobial zvakakosha zvechiono ichi: pamwe chete ne "kunatswa kwemuviri wenyika" pamwe chete ne "kuparadzwa kwemaitiro akaipa."

Zvinopikiswa kuti Kuuraya kweHolocaust kwakanga kwakaderera zvakasiyana nevakawanda veHolocaust vanorwara, uyewo vakavharirwa kuGermany iyo pachavo, zvichienderana nemashoko akataurwa nevarume nevakadzi vechikadzi zvepabonde ve50,000 vasvika mberi kwevatongi, vanosanganisira 5,000 uye 15,000 vakapedza kumisasa yevasungwa. Asi vanhu vazhinji vaiuya mberi kwemareji vakanga vatungamirirwa (kana kuti vakazvipira) kuti vawane sterilization / castration; ivo vangangosanganiswa pamwe nevamwe vakawanda, maererano nezviitiko zvose zvechiitiko muGermany zvemazuva ano tsika (iyo yakatanga kushandisa Westphal, yakawanikwawo nenzira yaKrafft-Ebing kuMagnus Hirschfield, yehurochani iye zvino inotaridzirwa sechishandura mutsara, endocrinological kana nheyo yenheyo), akanga afungidzirwa kuti aite ungochani kuva kliniki kunze kwekupomerwa mhosva. Vanhu vanorapwa nemapfungwa uye vanobatanidza kubva kuA T4 kuedza kudzinga vanhu vane marwadzo avo vaiti havangaratidziki pamatanho e.

Kutaura nezvehurochani, asi varume vanoita zvechikadzi, uye vakadzi vechibharo vakaita chisarudzo chekuratidza mazita avo. Misha uye nhengo dzechigenderana dzinoshandiswa, uyewo panewo maitiro ehuchani evanhu vanoita tsika.) Mishandirapamwe yekodzero dzechigenderana yakatanga kukura mukati meUnited States. Kusvika pakuguma kweiyo 1960s ungochani yakatanga kushorwa uye zvakare-inorapwa mune zvikamu zvakadai seUnited States, New Zealand, Australia, North America neEurope, mukati memamiriro ezvinhu ekuberekwa kwavo kwekuberekwa pamwe chete nevanopesana nemapfungwa. Kurongeka kurwisana nekodhave uye kodzero dzechanikodha kwakatanga kubva ku1970 s.

Public view

Maitiro ehutano kune ungochani akasiyana mune zvakasiyana-siyana zvezvakaitika uye Kusiyana kwakasiyana-siyana, semafungiro ekuita zvepabonde zvekuita nehukama. Mararamiro mazhinji ane zvido zvavo zvepabonde; kune vashoma vanofarira uye vasina ruzivo, asi izvi zvitsva zvinenge zvisingabvumirwi nevamwe.

Tsvakurudzo ye 2012 CNN yakaratidza kuti Zvakawanda Zvizhinji zvevanhu veAmerica zvinouya nemhosva yekodzero dzechikadzi. Muna 2015, kuongororwa kwevanhu vechiJapan vakawedzerwa vakawana chikamu chikuru chakatsigirwa kubatana.

Zvinangwa zvechitendero zvekudzivisa

Ichi chikamu chakanyorwa sechiratidziro kana Remark article iyo inotaura kuti ma Wikipedia editor maonero pamusoro penyaya. Iwe unofanirwa kubetsera kuburikidza nokuiripa iyo muE11 encyclopedic, kusimbisa iyo. (July 2015) (Dzidzai kuti inguva ipi yekubvisa iyi chaiyo yepeplate zvinhu)

Cherechedza hukama hwepabonde • Kuita zvepabonde mune zvechitendero

Zvizhinji zvezvitendero, kunyange zvakadai sekutenda kweEastern pamwe pamwe nekutenda hazvikurudzi zvepabonde. Chikristu cheEvangelical, chiKaturike, chiMormonism, chiJudha cheOrthodox, uye chiIslam, chine maonero ekuita zvepabonde chivi uyewo tsika dzetsika dzinokanganisa.

Kurwisa kwechiKristu

Chikamu ichi chinodikanwa kukura pamwe chete uchishandisa: sub-chikamu Kuwana nzvimbo yeChechi yeKaturike iri nechinetso ichi, ine "ona zvakare" muhukama hwevanhukadzi neChechi yeKaturike; kusawirirana kweKaturike kunoenderera mberi kupfuura Revhitiko neVaRoma uye kunosanganisira nharo dzemapurisa kubatana uye vadikanwa.Ungabatsira nekupa iyo. Mharidzo inogona kunge iri papeji pekukurukura (May 20-16)

Zvinyorwa zveTesitamente Yekare zvinorambidza murume "zvinoreva Vazhinji maPauline ndima dzakataurwa zvakare pamusoro pevakadzi nevakadzi ungochani. VaKristu vanosarudza mhemberero dzechihombe pamusoro pechinhu chogachani vanosimudzira kuongorora kwemashoko aya kubva kune maonero ayo Mwari anopesana nekuita zvepabonde imwechete, nepo maKristu anoda kusununguka mafungiro echokwadi anofunga kuti sei aya aya chaiwo anotaura mamiriro ezvinhu chaiwo, somuenzaniso kushungurudzwa kana kubata chibharo, uye pamwe pamwe zvichida kusambochani.

Islamic resistance

Zvinopesana pasi:

Mazano: Islam uye chinangwa

Sodomy Inonzi inopomerwa uye inorambidzwa munyika dzakawanda dzeIslam, sezvakataurwa nemutemo we Sharia, inotakurawo chirango chekufa muSaudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Iran, Mauritania, Nigeria, Sudan neYemen.

Chirango chekufa chakapedzwa neA Afghanistan muzasi kweTaliban. MuEgypt, varume vanoita zvepabonde vevanhu vose vanopomerwa pasi pemitemo yakawanda yemitemo. Kune rumwe rutivi rwakanga rwakakodzera muTurkey nekuda kwechokwadi 1858.

MuSaudi Arabia, chirango chehugochani chichange chiri kushandiswa kwevanhu vose, asi isu isu hurumende yehurumende inogona kushanda nematambudziko akasiyana-siyana, semuenzaniso, chirango, nguva yejeri, pamwe chete nekutsanangurira - sevamwe nzira dzakasarudzwa, kunze kwekuti kana zvakadaro zvinoratidzika kuti LGBT varume nevakadzi vakadzi vehurumende vane hutano hwakasimba kubva pakubatanidzwa muHGBT. Iran ndiyo nyika yekuita huwandu hwevanhu vayo. Kunyange zvazvo ungochani hwakapararira pakati penyika yePastun muAfghanistan, mushure mekuparadzwa kwevaTaliban, ungochani hunoenda kune uyo akatongerwa mhosva yejeri, chirango, pamwe chete nechisimba kunze kwechimwe chekubhadhara mari.

Kazhinji masangano ekodzero dzevanhu, somuenzaniso seHuman Connections inobatanidza vanhu vakuru vanobvuma pamhosva. Nyika dzinomiririra kuti iyi mitemo inodiwa kuchengetedza tsika dzechiIslam uye zvakakodzera. Kubva kune dzimwe nyika dzine vazhinji veMuslim neRainisia vane masangano Avo vanoda kuwana zviri pamutemo.

Indian uye East Asia kushorwa mune zvokunamata

Uye kuita zvepabonde, zvose zvehungochani neTaoism, uye ungochani muChina

Panyaya yezvitendero zvakatanga muIndia, zvakadai seHindu, Buddhism, Jainism uye Sikhism, dzidziso dzinoonekwa zvakaenzaniswa neimwe yemitemo yaAbrahama. Kusiyana nemachechi, ungochani hunotaurwa. Vasubandhu akawedzera imwe yemakiriniki akange akarambidzwa nekuda kwekubatana uku nevatengi, pamwe chete neDalai Lama akati chimiro chinoda kuwirirana nekunze kunonoka hukama hwepabonde. Ungochani hunofanirwa kuti hunopesana neshoko reSikh rekuzvibata, sezvo zvichida risina kutaurwa mumagwaro echiSikh uye sezvo vaSikh vakokwa kuti varoore, asi chinhu ichi hachina kufungidzirwa kuti chakakosha. Muna 2005the Head Cleric uyu Akal Takht akatongesa humwe hukama hwepabonde, huchiHindu hunotsigirwa, pasina hurumende inotungamirira muviri wevanhu, zvisinei zvakadaro swamis zhinji yakafananidza pfungwa yeiyo yepabonde yekubatana kwebonde mune imwe sarudzo ye2004, pamwe nevevanhu vashoma vakavakurudzira. Izvo hazvina zvinyorwa zvehuchani pakati pemagwaro echiHindu pamwe chete nehurukuro, asi sezvo Hinduism inofunga kuti ibasa rokutora uye kuva neshamwari dzevana dzave dzichifunga zvose.

Scientologist resistance

Scientologist Muvambi L. Ron Hubbard akaronga ungochani sehutano hwepfungwa uye paraphilia (akazonzi "hutsinye hwepabonde"), achitaura nezvemazuva ano masvomhu nemapfupa emagwaro ekukurudzira maonero ake.Varume vanoita zvepabonde vanokurudzirwa 1.1. Hubbard akakurudzira tsika yemazuva ano kurwisa nyaya ye "kusvibisa zvepabonde" (iyo inosanganisira ungochani), achifanotaura "iyo inonyanya kukosha, kana munhu achida kurega unzenza, uye kushungurudzwa kwevana.

Chinyorwa che2004 chinobva kuSt. Petersburg Times chakashuma kuti Chechi inotsanangura kuroorana semuchato pakati pemukadzi nemurume. Imwe gore mushure mekunge apindure kune imwe mhinduro maererano nechechi yeChechi pane ungochani, Chechi yeScientology pa2005 yakati: "Chechi yeScientology haitauri zvido zvepabonde.

utano

Tarisa zvakare: Zvinetso zveGGBB mumishonga

Chidimbu chekudzidza kuUnited States chinoratidza kuti kune uchapupu hushoma huripo huripo nokuti zvidzidzo zvingave zvisingarevi chikamu chimwe chete muzvikwata zvevanhu vanogona kuita zvisarudzo pamusoro pehuchani, ungochani, vanodanana, vanoita zvepabonde uye vanoita zvepabonde. Kuongorora kunowanikwa kubva pakuongorora kune ikozvino muUnited States, hapana maonero akasiyana nezvehutano hwemamiriro ezvinhu ehutano pakati pevarume nevakadzi veBGBB nhasi uyewo vanhu vanofananidzwa, asi hutano hweHGBT hwevanhu vose hunoita sehutera, asi pasina ruzivo rwakananga pamusoro mamiriro makuru uye akajairika, nguva refu kana kuti kanzura zvakanaka. Kutsvakurudza kunokonzera matambudziko anokonzerwa nevechidiki, semuenzaniso semuenzaniso weB LGBT vanhu vanotarirwa sevanokonzera kusuruvara, kuzviuraya nemamwe matambudziko ehutano hwepfungwa mukati mekukura, pakuberekwa, kurwisa, nekusarura. Imwe tsvakurudzo inodzidza kuitika kwenguva refu kwekudhakwa mune zveyunivhesiti, '' uyewo kufanirwa kwekutsvaga kwevanhu kunowanzoenderana nenzira iyo varume nevakadzi veLGBB vanogona kuita maitiro akaenzana mukuwana hutano, pamwe chete nemigumisiro yaro chaiyo.

Mamwe mashomanana anonzi LGBT anotsigira ruzivo rwekusimudzira LGBT inotungamirira kumatambudziko ehutano hwepfungwa mukati mekukura, uyewo zvipingamupinyi zvekuwana hutano hwakanaka sekukura hupi hupi hunopa hutano; zvisinei ivo vanotaura kuti kodzero dze LGBT dzomutemo dzinokosha kuderedza kushanduka kwezvinoitika mune zvehutano uye kugadzirisa kushandiswa kwezvigadzirwa zvehutano. Kudzoka mu '09 Canadian LGBT vatsigiri vakanyora chichemo pamusoro pehutano hwakanaka hweLGB dzeCanada dzinoitika kuti dzinoregererwa kubva kuzviremera, dzakakonzera kukanganisa kodzero dzavo dzevarume nevakadzi ve LGBT. Vashandi vanowedzera-kutarisira tarisiro yehupenyu kupfuura yevamwe veGGB varume nevadzimai, vachishandisa zviitiko zvakakura zvehutano pamwe neHIV uye vakawedzera doro rekudhakwa, kuzviuraya nemishonga inoshandiswa.

Kupikiswa munyika dzakasiyana

Ichi chikamu chave chakaumbwa sekuratidzwa kana Remark article iyo inoti Wikipedia editor maonero pamusoro pehurukuro. Iwe unofanirwa kubetsera kuburikidza nokuiripa iyo muE11 encyclopedic, kusimbisa iyo. (July 2015) (Dzidzai kuti inguva ipi yekubvisa iyi chaiyo yepeplate zvinhu)

Bherarusi

Kunyange mushumo we2014 wakagadzirira kubva kuUnited Kingdom, pasi peConservative uye Liberal Democrat vashandi vehurumende ye2010 - 2015, kuwedzerwa kunetseka pamusoro pekurapa kwe LGBT muBelarus:

Kunyange iyo LGBT Group yakatsungirira kushungurudzwa ne regimen mu 2013. Kunyange neHurumende yeRuramato yakaramba kuverengwa kukirasi yeGGBT, uyewo nhengo dzemunharaunda yeGGBT dzakaratidza nguva dzose kutungamirirwa nehurumende dzekuchengetedza uye dzakakonzerwa nekumubvunzurudza. Mapurisa akatyisidzira kuvatsamwisa ivo kuzivisa shamwari mumhuri idzi dzinotungamira, kana kunyange vashanda navo. Manherukodhi eMinsk neVitebsk akanga agadziriswa, uyewo avo vose varipo vakave vanyorwa uye 'zvavanowana zvakagadzirwa. Vhiki dzekupedzisira dzakanga dzese dzakapfigwa. Svondo reGay Pride kuMinsk rakange rambovhiringidzwa kubva kumapurisa akaisa pfuma yezvivako kuti vawane munguva yechipiri yapfuura. Vakuru vane hurumende vakauraya zvinhu izvi zvakaitika, pamwe nehurumende yakaita chikumbiro chekuita chikwata muguta rose.

India

Munenge muna Gumiguru 6, 1860, sodomy yakarambidzwa muIndia Izvi zvakatongerwa kusingapindi mutemo mune '09 kubva kuDhehi High Court, asi, yakatsigira December 2013 neChirongwa cheDare Repamusorosoro. Yakanga yakanyorwa pamutemo ne Supreme Court 6 September 2018.

Rashiya

LGBT vashanduri veMoscow, mbiri yeMarch 2013

Kupikiswa mumusangano wekodzero dzeLGBT Zvakanyanya kupararira muRussia, sepamusoro peKremlin. Mutungamiri Vladimir Putin vakapa mutemo mu2012 kuti vakapomera murairo pamusoro pematambudziko eGGBT, vachiitumidza kuti "gay propaganda". Zvisiri pamutemo kuzivisa vana vaduku izvo zvaive zvakajairika kana zvakasikwa. Izvi zvaive nevashoma vemaWestern States vane nhengo dzakawanda dzevanhu vanobva kuUnited States uye uyewo Western Europe vachikumbira kuti vatsvake maOmic Olympic avo muSochi. Kunyange zvakadaro Mutungamiri Putin akavimbisa kuti vatambi vanoremekedzwa, pasinei nezvakangoita uye kusina kukwidza kwakaitika.

Mutemo uyu wakatsanangurwa sekugamuchira mutemo weRGBT weRussia "kubva pakuva neboka rakasvibiswa kune vavengi vakazara vehurumende", zvakare rakarondedzerwa sechimwe chinhu chinonyanya kupa mukana weAn Anti Gay chisimba nemasangano akasiyana-siyana eNazi-mazamu (somuenzaniso , Occupy Pedophilia), iyo inogadzirisa vechidiki vanoita zvechikadzi uye vanovatsanangurira, vachiendesa YouTube zviito zvavo zvekurwisa zvinopesana nevechidiki veLGB, izvo zvakaguma nekupfuura kwevechidiki vechidiki veLGB muRussia, iyo inogona kuongororwa kubva kuhurumende , achivaisa se "hurumende dzinoenderera mberi kurwira zvivi zvevanhu".

United Kingdom

Kudzoka ku1988, British Conservative Party, iyo yaive iri muHurumende munguva iyo, yakanzi Chikamu 28 iyo yakati hurumende dzenharaunda haifaniri "dzichikurudzira ungochani kana kuparidzira zvinhu nechinangwa chokusimudzira ungochani" uye kuchengetedza zvikoro hazvifaniri " kukurudzira dzidziso yekugamuchirwa kwehuchani, "kurondedzera nhengo dzemhuri pamwe nevabereki vanoita zvechinhu chevamwe varume vanoita zvepabonde kuti vave pane" ukama hwepedyo hwemhuri ".Kutsvaga kugumisiro yekuongorora ruzivo pamusoro pekunamata kwekuziva mune zvekudzidzisa masangano akazarura mutsara pamwe chete nekuwana Kuita zvechisimba kuvengana nevanoshamwaridzana, pamwe nekuwedzera kwehuwandu hwehutachiona uye kuzviuraya pakati peGGBT vanhu vachiedza kudzokera kune zvavanoita zvepabonde hwavo. Mu 1987, '' Thatcher akawedzera kuti "vakadzidzisi vezvidzidzo zvakasara uye vadzidzisi vekunyanyisa" vakanga vachinyorera hurumende nokurayiridza chaizvo zvisikwa zviduku "zvinyorwa zvezvematongerwe enyika", "anti-racist mathematics" uye kuudza vadzidzi vavo kuti vane "kodzero yekuita gay", pane "vakadzidziswa kuremekedza tsika dzetsika".

Asi, pasinei nekupikisana neVa Conservatives sezvakaitwa David Cameron, Chikamu 28 chakawanikwa kubva kuhurumende yebasa iri pasi pe Tony Blair.

Kudzoka munaJune 2009, David Cameron, kunyange zvazvo achizoshanda kuti ave Sachigaro weChipiri, ainge achinyadzisa varume nevakadzi uye akaregererwa ruregerero kuratidzira mutemo waiti yaive yakakanganisa.

Kudzoka muC2013 kubvumirana kwakanyorwa pasi peKameron's Direction, kuti Cameron akajekesa se "danho rinokosha mberi" uye akati aifunga kuti "zvakafanira kuti vanhu vanoita zvepabonde vanofanira kukwanisa kuroorwa zvakare".

Izwi mu Opposition kuLGBT kuenzana muUnited States zvino inouya muChechi yeEngland mukati mechinetso chechani chebonde. Basa rakapiwa mutemo muna 2005 mukana wekuti sam esex vabatsire kuunza hubatano hwehurumende, zvisinei zvakadaro havakwanise kungoitika muchechi kana kuti kunzi "kuroora." Kunyange Chechi yeEngland yakaenzaniswa neyiyo hurumende yehurumende chinangwa (izvi zvinotungamirirwa zvakasvika mumhedziso muna May 2015) kuwedzera izvi kuva "kodzero dzakakwana dzewanano."

Bhuku reBritain National Party rakashandura danho rayo kubva kune Recriminalization pakuwedzera kwemitemo yemitemo ye28, kureva izvo zvinoita kuti zvibvumirwe kuratidzira zvakananga ungochani zvakanaka mumagariro evanhu. Muchi1999, Admiral Duncan bar, iro rega rega rega rega muSoho reLondon, rakarongedzerwa sechikamu chebasa rezvigandanga nevekare raNational Socialist Movement pamwe neBritish National Party (BNP) hukama, David Copeland; vanenge 3 vanhu vakaurayiwa, uyewo 70 yakaremara kana kukuvadzwa nenzira yebhomba rembambo iri kubva pari.

nyika dzakabatana

Kubva ku1950s muUnited States, ungochani hunogamuchira huri huchi. Mitemo yehurumende imwe neimwe yakanga yapfuura mutemo unorwisana nemararamiro evanhukadzi. Munyika yose yeCold War, vezvematongerwe enyika vaigara vachitsanangura ungochani se "hurumende" iyo yaSabotaged patriotism nekuchengeteka, yakatsanangurawo maCommist Sympathizers kana kuti pamwe neCommunist Fifth column.Ccarthythy akashandiswa zvipombwe zvehuchani.Senator Kenneth Wherry akazivisa kushungurudza kuti Joseph Stalin akanga atora mutsara weHodx munzvimbo dzakagadzirwa nemagetsi muAdolf Hitler, akafunga kuti Stalin aireva kushandiswa kuti ashevedze varume ava kuti vaite zvinopesana neUnited States kuti vawane Soviet regimen. Mharidzo ye1950 Yakaitwa neimwe Sangano reSenate Mukuwedzera pane Kunetseka, nhoroondo vakawana ungochani husina kukodzera Kubata hurumende basa kunyanya kubva "avo vanoita mabasa akawanda eMore anoshandiswa mitsva yevamwe varume vanoita zvepabonde vezvematongerwe enyika veAmerica kubva zvishandiso kuti vawane Kupfuura simba rakakundikana.

Rudo rwechiMwari chiGiriki huMwari uye zvitendero mukati maMambo wake, somuenzaniso The Erotes: Eros, Himeros uye pamwe chete Pothos vanoonekwa sevatariri ve rudo rwose pakati pevarume. Eros ndeyekudzidzira vamwe vatatu vevanamwari WHO vanoita zvinyorwa mukati mega-homo-erotic maitiro, akabatanidzwa nemafungiro ezvakanaka uye Hermes, avo vakaramba mararamiro eUkanaka (uye Kuvimbika), potency, kune rumwe rutivi rwemavara, zvisizvo, pane vatevedzeri varume . Pakati pezvinyorwa zveSappho, chiMwari chechiGiriki chinonzi mutariri wevadzidzi vose. Aphroditus ave ari mwari wechiGiriki kubva kuKupro, mumhemberero yakave yakasimuka ikave yakakurumbira semwari wechiGiriki mwanakomana weHermes nevechiGiriki.

Mu Ovid's Metamorphosis Iphis inouya nechinangwa chechikadzi.

Maererano neBhuku XII revose Ovid's Metamorphoses, Mutariri weLapith weThessaly, Caeneus, akanga ari munhu we transgender. Akange azivikanwa seCaenis, musikana weAtrax.

Norse

"Freyr" (1901) kubva kunaJohn Gehrts.

Iko sagas rinobva muGermany rinosanganisa chero nyaya dzenhengo dzevanhu vanoita zvepabonde kana ungochani, kana kutungamira dzinoreva hutano hweBGBB, zvisinei zvavanonyanya hazvirevi imwechete kana maviri maitiro ezvitadzo anotumwa nevarume vanopomerwa kuti vave vashandi vanoita zvepabonde mukati mepabonde, akatenda "tsika dzomunhu" uye nengozi kumunhu kumunhu kana mutungamiriri.

Pasinei naizvozvo, hazvina kujeka kuti chizvarwa cheNorse, Mwari weNorse wekubereka, chichaitika kuti chizobviswa nekuratidzwa kweboka revatongi, kunyange pamwe zvakaratidzwa nemunyori wenhoroondo muGesta Danorum. Odin inotsanangurwa kuva ruzivo rwe seiðr, '' chimiro chezvisikwa zvepamusoro chakatenda mutsva kuti chiedze uye chave chave chakatariswa zvevasikana. [zvinoreva] zvichida tsika yekuti seirr inosanganisira mitambo yakanga isingabatsiri, pamwe chete Odin akazvidzwa nokuda kwehupenyu huri pachena huripo.

Mukuwedzera, zvakasiyana-siyana zvevamwari veNorussia vanobudirira pakuita zvepabonde Kuita zvepabonde kunogona, kufanana naLoki, mwari anonyengera akazvishandura semhando yemusikana. '' akatendeuka uye, achitevera zvepabonde nevose vaSvaðilfari, akabereka. Mhinduro dzemukomana kune mumwe musikana ari kubereka vana zvinoratidzirwa kuti anogara achizvidza muScandinavia, pamwe chete chokwadi chekuti Loki anoramba achiri bondexual.

Celtic

MuCelttic mythology Ushamwari hwevabatsiri huripo. Vatauriri veGreek neRoma vanotaura zvepabonde pakati pevarume, semuenzaniso pedophilia, kumadzinza eCelt. asi, Peter Chicheri anotaura muC Celtic novelty: simba remagetsi, paradigms, kune rumwe rutivi rwehutano hwekuti gayi rutsigiro rwakatsiurwa mumuchubuko weCeltic nekuda kwekutsvaira nechiKristu, uye inoratidza chero upi zvake hwekusangana kwepabonde isati huri kubereka hwakapedzisira waparadzwa kubva munyaya dzezvakawanda.

Mamwe maverengi emagwaro akanyangwe akataura nyaya dzeLGBB, semufananidzo, hukama uye hama-dzinobatsira Cúchulainn naFerdiadh kushandurwa se (BI) kushamwaridzana kwevanhu. kamwe akamanikidzwa kurwisana nemumwe musarudzo, '' Ferdiadh anotaura kuti vataurirane nemabhedha, '' uye ivo vakafungidzirwa kuti vane nhaka vakaona zvose zvinotevera zvakatevera manheru anokosha ekutsvoda uye kurwa. Pamwe chete 3 nguva, Cúchulainn akakunda Ferdiadh nekuputika nzvimbo yake yakare pamwe nechekudivi kwe "chimbo chake chisingazikamwi" Gáe Bulg.Nhoroondo iyi yakakonzera kuenzanisa nevaGirisi "vanoda varwi", pamwe chete Cúchulainn aiteerera pakupfuura kwaFerdiadh mune mukusiyanisa kune Achilles 'kuchema kwePatrocles.

Asian mythologies

  1. Werner.

Zvinyorwa zveChinese zvave zvichifananidzirwa se "vapfumi muhupupuriro pamusoro pehurochani", kunyanya zvitendero zvechitendero. Rudo rwemhando imwechete yepabonde yakatendwa kuti inenge yakabva mukati mekunze kwemaodzanyemba, saka gayindi inowanzoti "Southern end". Chikwata cheChinese "nguva dzose itai kuzvikudza zvepabonde nevarume vakwegura", mumwe muenzaniso uri mukati menyaya ye "Old Farmer kudivi rega pamwe neDhiana", mukati maro apo murimi ane makore makumi matanhatu anokonzerwa nejoka rinopfuura, zvichiita kuti maronda ave kubva mukati mokupinda uye akarova anoda kurapwa. Zita rake rinoreva zvinoreva "huMwari". Maererano ne "The Tale of this Rabbit God" mukati meZi Zi Yu, Tu Er Shen pakutanga aiva munhu anozivikanwa saHu Huanbao, WHO yakava mapenzi nemusikana wechidiki anoongorora mutongi weFijian Province .

Kwezviuru zvemakore, gayini yevarume yakaonekwa mumabhuku kuburikidza nekutsanangura ku2 semi-inofanirwa nhamba kubva kumambo wekutanga. icho chikuru chaiva Mizi Xia saka saka peach yehafu yaidyiwa yaakagovana pamwe nemudiwa wake, munhu chaiye wenhoroondo, Duke Ling weMambo Wei. Wechipiri ndiShe Long Long principle, WHO yakagutsikana NAMWARI asina zita reMambo we Wei kuti arambe akazvipira kwaari nekuzvicherechedza pachedu kune hove shoma kuti Mambo angadenga kana hove huru yakasvika. asi mumwe nomumwe Mizi Xia naShe Long Long vanogona kunge varipo zvechokwadi, hapana chinonzwisiswa pamusoro pavo kumativi akareba nyaya dzavo dzekuumba, uye kuvapo kwavo mumutauro weChinese kwaive kwakanyanya kune vanhu vanonyanya kushandiswa avo vaishumira seArchetypes yehuchani.

Japanese

Maererano nekutenda kweJapan nemanzwiro, gayness yakaiswa munyika yose neShinu No Hafuri uye mudiwa wake Ama No Hafuri. Ava vaiva vashumiri vemwari wemaboriginal, zvichida zuva revaMwari vomuJapan. Pamusoro pekufa kweShinu, amai vakazviuraya pamusana pekutambudzika, uye naizvozvo vaviri vacho vakavigwa mukati meguva rimwe chete. Mune kumwe kutaura kwe nyaya yacho, zuva rakakundikana kuvhenekera nzvimbo yekuviga kusvikira vadikanwi vaisazovhiringidzwa uye vakavigwa pamwe chete, kunyange zvazvo kana kuti kwete kudarika kwezuva kwakange kuripo nokuda kwehukama hwegunodha hakusi pachena.

Mune imwe nyaya, vanamwari vechiJapane vanodzivisa kubva mukurwisana pamwe nehanzvadzi yake Susanoo mubako, vachidzivisa pasi pezuva masikati noupenyu. kuitira kuti vashandise huMwari hwekuJapan kubva mubako, kushamiswa kwemasimba uye kudhakwa, Ame No Uzume, anoita dhimbirano yepabonde yepabonde iyo inobatanidza kubudisa chifuva chake chechifu uye chechikadzi, uye kunakidza zvimwari zveJapan kuti vazviyemura. Pamusoro peAmaterasu kubuda mubako, transgender Kami Ishi Kori Dome akakurumidza girazi rinoshamisa, uye naizvozvo kushamwaridzana kwekutamba uye kufungidzira kwake kufadza huMwari hweJapan zvakanyanya zvokuti haaone mweya inofanirwa kuvhara musuo wemapako shure kwake.

Vanamwari vechiShinto vanonetseka zvose zvinoudza zvikamu zvehupenyu, pamwe chete nekutevera shudo (pederasty). MUMWE mutariri mukuru anotarisirwa kuti ave murume-murume rudo uye zvepabonde, "Shudo Daimyojin", iri mune vamwe vanhu masangano echiShinto, asi haisi nzvimbo yehutano hwechiShinto.

Imwe Kami yakabatana nerudo rwemhando imwechete yepabonde kana kuti kusiyana kwechikadzi kunosanganisira: Shirabyoshi, mukadzi kana transmasculine Kami, anorondedzerwa sehafu-munhu, hafu yenyoka. ivo vanobatana neShinto vatambi vezita rakafanana, WHO dzimwe nguva vakadzi (kana kazhinji vanodarika varume) uye vanoita mitambo yemidziyo muzvigadzirwa zvepurasitiki zvekare; Oyamakui, mweya wechitsika we transgender unochengetedza zvekutengeserana nekubereka; uye Inari, Kami yekurima uye mupunga, WHO inorondedzerwa sevanhu vakasiyana-siyana, mhedziso yepamusoro inowanzova mwari wechikadzi wezvokudya, AN ANA achangotakura mutoro, ANd epicene isingafi . Inari inowedzera yakanamatira kumapanga uye Kitsune, kuchinja kushandiswa kwemapikisi emhepo. Kitsune zvinowanzozvinyengedza ivo sevasikana, kuzvidzora kwevakadzi vavo chaivo, kuitira kuti vanyengedze varume kuti vaite zvepabonde navo. Kutenda kwakakurumbira muJapan yakapfuura ndeyekuti musikana chero upi zvake akasangana ari oga, kunyanya pakupenya kana usiku, angave ari mbwa.

Hindu

  • Shiva uye huMwari hweHindu mukati mekuda kweArdhanarisvara
  • Nyaya inokosha: Misoro yeGGBT munhoroondo dzechiHindu
  • Onawo: Mifananidzo ye LGBT uye Hinduism

"" Chikwata chechiHindu chaive nechirongwa chakajeka chokucheka chevanhu ava munguva yakapfuura. ikozvino kuti tine nzvimbo iyo pasi pezita rimwechete 'LGBT', pane toni yakawanda yekuvhiringidzika uye zvimwe zvisiri izvo zvakawana zvakavanzika. "

Gopi Ravi Shankar Madurai paNational Queer Conference 2013

Nhema dzakare-kare dzinosanganisira mamiriro asingaverengeki evanamwari Gender, kuratidzira pamamiriro akasiyana-siyana sepabonde, kana zvichida kuwirirana kuumba epicene kana vanhu. Vanamwari vanochinja hupombwe kana kuti vanopupura mukati maA Avatar kubva kune zvepabonde zvavo saka naizvozvo kuderedza musangano. Zvisizvo-zvisikwa zvaMwari zvekudzidzira ruzivo zvinokonzera migumisiro yezvikomborero kana kutukwa, kana semugumisiro wemigumisiro yekudzoka zvakare.

Nhema dzechiHindu dzinosanganisira zviitiko chero kupi zvako zvepfungwa Chinangwa chitsvene chinoshandiswa nehukama hwezvinhu izvi zvakanyanyobatanidzwa. nguva nenguva izvi kubatana kunoshorwa nevanamwari asi mune dzimwe nguva vanoda kuve kwavo.

Mukuwedzera kune zvinyorwa zvekusiyana kwepanyama uye zvepabonde zvinogamuchirwa nehukuru hwechiHindu, kusvika panguva iyo vadzidzi uye vashandi vezvimirizhonga vakasimbisa nyaya dze LGBT kana kuti vakavabudisa kunze kwezvinyorwa zvinonzi hazvina chero zvinyorwa. Kusabvumirana kunoumbwa nekutsvaga pamusoro pekukosha kwe nyaya.

Buddhist

Onawo: Mifananidzo yeBGBB uye Buddhism

Mune tsika, rugwaro rweBuddhist haruna kusiyanisa Same zvepabonde Kudzidzira muviri kubva zvichida kuonekwa mukati, nenzira isiri yekugadzirwa kwenyika. Mitemo yakawanda yeBuddhist mitemo inotangira munyaya uye Iyo, uye nheyo ndeyechokwadi nemaonero aya echiBuddha evanhu veLGBT nevarume. kuti ataure Mufananidzo, mitemo inorayira LGBT upristi mumapoka mashomanana mashoma anobva Mukududzirwa kwechikamu ichi Mahavagga. PaPandakavathu chikamu chebasa chairo, Tales pamusoro pe "pandaka" (zvepabonde kana zvepabonde vari vanhu) vakabatanidzwa. mune imwe nhoroondo, Pancake nzira dzekutanga apo boka revatori veElphant, uye masango evatangi vanochengeta vanokumbira vanhu mukirasi imwe neimwe kuti "vasvibise" ivo. zvisinei kuchinjwa mumwe nomumwe akatungamirirwa uye nguva isina basa, Zviitiko dzinovaka CHINHU chezvinhu zvose zvisingatauri maererano nevanamata, kunyange kutungamirira Buddha kupinda tavern pancakes kubva paupirisita hwako.

Maererano naCabezón uyewo Greenberg, izvi zvisingashandisi kuisa vanhu, uye zvinyorwa zveBuddhist zvinosanganisira zvinoratidzika zvehutano hwepabonde hwakange husina zvepabonde. Zvose izvi zvinonyanya kufanana kubva ku "Jataka" zvipupuriro (maIndia nhoroondo dzehupenyu hwehupenyu hweBuddha), uko Buddha inowanzouya nemurume akazvipira. Mune nyaya dzakasiyana-siyana ivo vangadzoserwa pamwe chete sezvipo zvisikwa "kutumbuka nekukomberedza pamwe chete, kufara kwazvo, kumusoro kumusoro, muzora kuguvha, runyanga runyanga." Kunyange zvazvo zvichida zvisingaoneswi nekuda kwekuchiva, hukama huripo pakati pevarume huri kuratidza, uye kuenzanisa pamwe nezvose zvakanyatsobatana nemadzimai ane njere.Harvey zvisinei, haadi uye anotaura kuti chii chinonzi rudo rudo uye zvichida zvichida kwete kungobatana chete.

MuTravel Theravada Buddhism, nhau dzinoratidza Izvi "ungochani hunokwira sechikonzero chekarmic chokuputsa maBuddhist proscriptions pamusoro pekusaita unhu hwakanaka" pane imwe nguva yekare inonzi Thai Buddhist's inonzwawo mudzidzi Ananda kuti ave achipa mizhinji yemamiriro ezvinhu sekadzi, uye pakupedzisira nguva yehupenyu kuve yakashandura-gadzirisheni Ananda anozivikanwa nekuda kwekunzwa kwavo, uyewo ane chishamiso uye anozivikanwa.Nhoroondo ye 1 yehupenyu hushomanana, Ananda akachinja kuva yogi yakaderera zvakadzama zvakadaro murudo rwakadzika ine Naga, nyoka Mambo weIndia nharo, uyo akafuridzira rudzi rwehuduku hwake. Kubatana kwakashandurwa kuva hutano, kunokonzera Ananda kuparadzanisa kure kubata, kuitira kudzivirira kuparadzanisa.

Maererano nenhau, munhu anoda ainge asunungurwa Kuenda kuJapan kubva kumuumbi weChechi yeShoko (Shingon) chechiJapane esoteric Buddhism, Kukai. Vanyori vezvakaitika kare vanotaura izvi chaizvoizvo hazvirevi zvakarurama, asi nokuti Kukai ave ari boka rinotyisa remitemo. Zvimwe zveHodhisattvas zvinogadzirisa madzimai nenzira dzakasiyana-siyana, izvo zvinoita kuti tibatanidzwe nekanguva kudarika kweve transgenderism uye ungochani. Guanyin, Avalokitesvara, uye Tara vave vakanzwisiswa kuti vane mitezo yepabonde.

Firipaini

Kudzoka kuPhilippines, Kunyanya mumakoloni Pamwe pamwe nemadzimambo, nhoroondo dzeiyi Mwari mwari, 'Sidapa. Sidapa inoratidzirwa seyakanaka uye yakasimba uyewo akarwisana nemwari wehondo, Macanduc, pamwe chete nemwarikadzi wemvura iyi kuti awane mutyairi iye akadzingirira: mumwe mukomana. Mwari wekuenda akadzingirira chimwe chezvinhu izvi zvinotyisa kumwari: Bulan mukomana arikudenga. Kufambidzana kwavo kuchava chiitiko chakanaka chePederasia. Nhoroondo iyi inotaurira nzira iyo yakatarisa kunaka kwemwedzi iyi uye yaida iyo asi yaive yakakavhiringidza. Akarwa uye akakunda mwarikadzi uye vose vamwari. Mukomana anogara kubva kumatenga akadzingwa naye. Mwari wekupfuura akagadzirisa vakatsoropodza uye vanofara kuti vaimbe godo kumwanakomana wenyu wekumatenga. Mukuwedzera, akakumbira maruva kuti aumbe mabheti nemapfumbu eBuran, uye zvekupedzisira asi chaizvoizvo haasi iye akapa unyoro mumaputi emhepo kuitira kuti mukomana uyu aende kumatanho chaiwo aanogona kufanana nawo. Nhau dzinotaura kuti Bhuran yaiva yakanaka yekushungurudzika kwakashata kwakakura ikava nyoro iyo shiri uye hove dzaiwanzoita kushambira uye kubhururuka. Sidapa akasarudza mukomana kuti ave mukomana wake wemwana pamwe chete nenhau dzenyika uye Vafambisi vechikepe vakawanda zvisinei vachifunga kuti vanogara pamwe chete vachirara muMumwe weZviko kuMat. Majaas, kubva kumamiriro eAntique

African mythologies

West African, Yoruba uyewo Dahomean (Vodun)

Muvambi wehuMwari hwevhangeri rose reDahomey ndeye. Shoko-Lisa, rakagadzirwa nenzira yekubatana kwehanzvadzi yavo mbiri uye zvitendero zvehama Lisa (mwedzi) uyewo Mawa (zuva). Mune hukama hwakabatana, ivo vaiti se-intersex kana kutengesa zvepabonde (pamwe nekuchinja kwepabonde). Zvimwe zvitendero zvakasiyana-siyana zvinosanganisira Nana Buluku, "Mukuru amai" avo vakaberekera Lisa naMawa uye vakaunza nyika, zvakare inosanganisira vakadzi nevakadzi.

Vanhu veAkan veGhana vanove nenzvimbo yevanamwari vanobatanidza manifications yemitumbi. Zvose izvi zvinopupurirwa semasikirwo kana kuti madhimoni, zvinosanganisira Abrao (Jupiter), zvichienderana naAk (Mercury), pamwe chete uye Awo (Mwedzi).

Kunyanya kunwa doro zvino ndiyo Chikamu cheEssential cheMidhiyumu nedzimwe tsika dzechitendero dzeAfrica. Iyo inowanzogara iine vakadzi, asi inogonawo kushanda sevanhu vakuru, uyewo varume vanorara vanoonekwa se "mwenga" wehuMwari hwavo kana vane yavo.Izwi rinoshandiswa kureva hutano rinouya nechisimba zvikuru uye kuratidzira zvepabonde kunyange zvakafanana neyomuYoruba -kunyorwa kwezvitendero zveAmerica, asi hapana hukama hunofanirwa pakati pehuchani nehupfumi kana basa rekurara pabonde mune basa rega rega.

Zimbabwean

Nhema dzeShandanisi vanhu veZimbabwe dzinotungamirirwa Nezvemwari anodzidzisa mwari anonzi Mwari, uyo anoparadzaniswa kusvika kune vakadzi nevakadzi.

VaEgipita

Zvinyorwa zvehurochani zviriko muEgipita pamwe chete neinoita izvo zvakanyanya kunyorwa uye zvifananidzo zviri kuratidzira zvepabonde. Zvinhu zvinowanikwa zviripo zvinoratidza kuti samesex kuwirirana kwakaonekwa sechinhu chakaipa, uye zvakare uhu huri hwepakati hwekuita huri hwekukwikwidza kwesimba uye kutonga, dema mumugamuchiri, maonero anowanzoitika kubva kuMediterranean.

Chiitiko Chinozivikanwa Zvikuru chezviitiko chinoitika muMasimba ekurwa-simba anosanganisira Mwari wako-god Horus, pamwe chete nababamunini Set Set kuti mwari ane ngozi wenyika iyi yerenje. Ita kuti miedzo yekuratidza kunaka kwake iite nenzira yekunyengedza, pakuti inorumbidza Horus pamubhedha wake uye kuedza kumunyatsopinda mukati. Kukundikana, Kuisa ejaculates pakati pechidya chaHorus, nokudaro achirega Horus kuunganidza mhando yake. Akaisa pfungwa yekuti akakunda mahofisi e inshuwarisi yeHorus "akaita chiitiko ichi chinorwadza pamusoro pake." Horus ndiye anoisvetedza kubva kugungwa, zvinoreva kuti pamwe zvichida haafaniri kufungidzirwa kuti inotanga kuiswa neHorus. lettuce, iyo ndiyo ndiyo yaive yakagadzirirwa kudya (iyo pfungwa yevaIjipita kuti lettuce yaive yakasviba ).Ipapo Ita paakapedza lettuce vanoramba vachiedza uye vachidzorera nharo pamusoro pemitemo yeEgypt.Vamwari vanoteerera kuTe vimbiso yekukurira mukati meHorus, uyewo foni nhengo yake pachayo asi inopindura pamusoro pegungwa, ichivhiringidza vimbiso yake.Vamwari vanonzwa kutongwa kwaHorus kwekutonga kweSeti, uye kunodana semhara yake, uye inopindura kubva mukati Izvo. Horus naSeti vaifunga zvekare, kana zvisina kunaka, uye Set's's consumption ye mbeu yaHorus yakagadzira Thoth's lunar lunar, nokudaro ichinyatsokonzerwa nemigumisiro. kusvikira pakupedzisira muIjipiti, uyewo mabasa ehupenyu akanyorwa sepakutanga zvakasiyana-siyana.

Kuberekwa kwega woga kunoratidzirwa kuva chikamu chinokosha chezvinyorwa zveEgipita, zvakare Uye zvakafadza kushandiswa kubereka kubereka kunopiwa nemafashamo egore reNairi. Izvi zvakabatanidzwa pane zvinyorwa zvezvose zveNile-vamwari, somuenzaniso Anofara, mwari weRwizi rwaNire, uyewo saWadj-wer, mwari weNile Delta, kuti kunyange varume vakaratidzwa pamwechete nemhando dzose dzevakadzi sezvipfuva zvinonyangadza, uye vanomiririra kubereka iyo gungwa rinopa.

Mythologies of Oceania

  • Aboriginal vokuAustralia

Vanhu vomunharaunda yeAustralia vanove nekutenda kwakanyanyisa, kusanganisira boka revanamwari. The rainbow nyoka Mwari Ungud yakatumidzwa se transgender kana androgynous. Shaman dzinoona peni yavo pamwe chete vachishandisa Ungud, pamwe chete neyemusiya wake anoita kuti nguva iwane humwe hutano hwehukama hwavo. Angamunggi ingori imwewo mhando inotenderera-yehuni-nyoka mwari, yakanamatwa kuva "mupi wehupenyu".

Zvimwe zveAustralia zvinyorwa zvinoumbwa neRabarindja, madzimai mapenzi anonzi Blue-skin kana "madhimonikadzi" pamwe chete nemvere dzakaita mumvuri weutsi. Nhau pamusoro peizvi dzinoratidza izvi kuti zvive zvakaneta zvachose nerudo kana zvepabonde nevarume vakuru, pamwe chete nemumwe mutenzi anomanikidzira kufungisisa pamusoro pavo kunogona kuparara, kuvonga "uipi hwakaipa mumadzimai avo". Uyezve, ivo vakanyatsorondedzerwa sevanonzi intersex kana gynandrous, vachishandisa chirume uye mukadzi. Kuva nechinzvimbo chavo vakatarwa nevakomana mumapfeke evakadzi kunomiririra mutsika iyo.

Zvitendero zvinosanganisira boka revanamwari. Vakawanda vevamwari ivavo vanobvunzana nevanobatsirana navo zvepabonde se "aikane", shoko rinopoteredza ushamwari hwakasimba pamwe nerudo rwepabonde, kazhinji pazvinhu zvepabonde.

Wahineomo, mwarikadzi wemanzwi echiHawaii ane zita rinoreva "kukwidza mukadzi", rinoratidzwa mumabatanidzwa pamwe chete navamwarikadzikadzi Hi'iaka uyewo Hopoe. Apo Hi'iaka aifungidzirwa nemurume waPele, ipapo mwarikadzikadzi Pele akauraya Haie anodikamwa waHopoe. Mukuwedzera kune Wahineomo pamwe naHopoe, Hi'iaka akawana ungochani pamwe chete achishandisa mwarikadzi Pauopalae pamwechete naPele-devotee Omeo. Omeo yaiva chikamu chekudzoka uku kwakakonzera bonde-zvepabonde Prince Lohiau kuPele nokukurumidza pakarepo mushure mokubva kwake. Muhupenyu hwake hwose Lohiau ndiye aifarira mudzimai wePele naPaoa.

Zvimwe zvitendero zvePolynesia zveGBBT zvinosanganisira vashomanana Pala-Mao uye Kumi-Kahi, pamwe nemwarikadzikadzi wepabonde Haakauilanani, uyo akanga achingova mushumiri uye nharo ye "Mukadzi pasi pano" mwarikadzikadzi Papa pamwe chete nemukadzi wake Wakea. Zvinyorwa zveGGBT zvinowedzerawo zviri mumitambo yePolynesian, '' seyakadai somuenzaniso (murume) shaman Pakaa pamwe chete nomukuru wake uye mutezo Keawe-Nui-A-'umi, uye mubati wehove anonzi Nihooleki, uyo akaroora mukadzi asiwo aive neukama nemwari weguru Kamapua'a.

Pakati pevamwari vavo vanamwari, Ngaju Dayak weBorneo vanamate Mahatala-Jata, mwari wevanamwari uye vanokanganisa. Nhengo yemurume uyu mwari Mahatala, anotonga Nyika Yakakwirira, uye anoratidzwa se hornbill kurarama pamusoro pemakore pagomo-kumusoro; iyo chikamu chikamu ndiJata, anotonga pasi pasi kubva pasi pegungwa nenzira yemvura-nyoka. Izvi zviratidzo zviviri zvakabatana kuburikidza nebhiriji rakanyungudutswa rakaonekwa munyika chaiyo sehovha. Mahatala-Jata inoshumirwa ne "balian", madzimai echikadzi, uye "basir" veshamani vanofananidza zvakafananidzirwa se "mvura yekunwa nyoka dzakasvika panguva imwechete ye hornbills". VaShaman vanofananidzira, "manang bali", vanowanikwa muIban Dayak vanhu. Vasikana vakadzingwa kuti vave manang bali vangave vatotanga kuva vakadzi uye zvekudanwa nemwari / dess Menjaya Raja Manang kana mwarikadzi Ini. Menjaya Raja Manang akatanga kuvepo semwari wemurume, kusvikira mudzimai wehanzvadzi yake akarwara. Izvi zvakakonzera Menjara kuti ave mutori wenyika yekutanga, achimubvumira kuporesa mukomahwa wake, asi kurapwa uku kwakagumawo muMenajara kuchinja kuva mukadzi kana androgynous being.

Mythologies yeAmerica

  • Maya naAztec

Mwari weMayan Chin, akataurwa kubva muzana remakore rechigumi nematanhatu, anonzi akaunza homoeroticism mumutauro weMayan uye akazobatanidzwa nekuda kwepabonde. Muenzaniso wake wakafuridzira mhuri dzakanaka kutenga varume vechidiki sevanoda vana vavo, vachigadzira hukama hwepamutemo pamwe nekuroorana. Imwe nyanzvi yeMayan inokosha inonyanya kuzivikanwa kubva kuClassical period (200-900 AD), iyo inonzi inonzi Tonsured Maize Mwari, inowanzofananidzirwa muMaya unyanzvi sechinhu chinokonzera jaya rinosangana neunyanzvi uye kutamba, uye anofungidzirwa kuti Akave ' wechitatu wepabonde '.

Xochipilli ('Flower Prince') yave iri iyo mwari wemifananidzo, Online Games, Runako, kutamba, maruva, chibage, uye mutsindo paAttec mythology, pamwe chete nemubatsiri wevamwe varume vanoita zvepabonde uye zvifeve.

  • Tarisa Two-mweya

Kudzoka muUnit shamanism, vanhu vaviri vakanga vari Akulujjuusi Uye Uumarnituq, varume vakangofanana. Uyu murume nemudzimai vakasarudza kuroora uye kuda boka. Izvi zvakakonzerwa nekuberekwa kuti uwane Uumarnituq. Sezvo asina kunge akazvigadzirirwa kupa kupa, chirumbira chakanga chiri kukanda icho chakashandura uhu hwake humupa vagina nekwanisi yekubuda mwana. Kunyangwe Uumarnituq aive nemhosva yekuisa hondo hondo senzira yekudzivisa pamusoro pehuwandu hwevanhu. Mwarikadzi Sedna anogona kunge ari muvambi weUnoit achishandisa simba rezvisikwa. Shamans inoratidzirwa sehemaphroditic kana kunyange gynandrous inomushandirawo. Nhema dzinoratidzira Sedna kuva bondexual kana kuva bonde zvepabonde, kugara mumhenderekedzo yegungwa.

Nhoroondo dzevanhu vekuAmerica dzinosanganisira Coyote kunyengedza varovani vevabonde kune nguva yakareba kusvika pakupedzisira. Zvimwe zvinonakidza midzimu dzimwe nguva zvinongotora mukati mekadzi chimiro kana kwete chero zvipo zvekupa mazano apo pavanoda kunyengedza musikana wechidiki akanaka.

zvemishonga

Kutorwa kweBaron Samedi, a.

Kunyange Nhamba Yakawandisa yemweya kana vanamwari (ya) iripo muHaiti Zvose izvi zvinogona kuonekwa sezvikamu zvevanhu sechinhu chimwe chezvinhu zvakasiyana, pamwe nekubatana kune nzvimbo dzakasiyana dzehupenyu hwezuva nezuva.

Zvizhinji zvezvo zvine ruzivo kana kuti zvinopfurikidza kubva kubva kuGedes neBarons. Mazhinji acho anonyanya kushamwaridzana zvepabonde imwechete kana kudanana kwechitenderender. Izvi zvinosanganisira Ghede Nibo, mweya unochengetedza chero munhu anoparara muduku. Iye dzimwe nguva anoratidzirwa kuva anonyatsokonzera madzimai anokonzerawo munhu wose anokwanisa kuve nemafungiro asina kunaka ane marudzi akawanda, kunyanya lesbian kana kuti transgender maitiro mumadzimai. Amai vaGhede Nibo nababa "ndivo Baron Samedi naMaman Brigitte; Baron Samedi angave ari piyona wako weGedes neBarons uye anogona kuratidzirwa sevanhurume, kana kuti zvishoma nezvishoma kutengesa zvepabonde, kupa rupiro pamwe chete nejecha jekete pamwe chete nejesheni dzevakadzi nejasi. Samedi inouya nechinangwa che "kushamwaridzana kwemasimba" anokwidza mhirizhonga dzepabonde uye zvinoreva kuzvikudza kwepabonde.

Bharons Kuratidza mufambiro ndeyeBaron Lundy pamwe chete naBaron Limba, avo vave vave vadzidzisi uye vanorayira rudzi rwemakwikwi ean-erotic nude muchikwata chavo, inofungidzirwa kuti inovandudza kuve nekubudirira. Bharon Oua Oua, uyo anowanzobudirira kushandisa mwana akafanana nenyaya, ainzi ye-bar-on "yakanyatsobatanidzwa neungochani" kubva kuVoodoo practitioners.

Chimwezve rwa, '' Erzulie, Inoenderana nerudo Uye kukwezva. Erzulie anokwanisa kupupurira zvikamu izvo zvine chokuita neLGBT, somuenzaniso kutengesa-zvepabonde kana mazonian mazoni, pamwe chete nevakadzi vechidiki. Paunenge uchitora varume, izvozvi zvinogona kukonzera doro kana kuti homo-erotic maitiro, apo paanogona kutungamirira kuvabonde kana kuti vanopesana nemurume mumadzimai. Erzulie Freda anozivikanwa seanochengetedza varume vakuru vasiri varumekadzi, uyewo Erzulie Dantor anowirirana nevadzidzisi vemasikana.

Santeria pamwe chete naColomblé

Santería uyewo Candomblé vave zvitendero zveYoruba diasporic kutenda uye katurike, vazhinji vanogara kuSouth America, izvo zvinosanganisira Cuba neBrazil. Zvinyorwa zvavo zvinowanikwa zvakawanda zvakafanana neizvi zveYoruba, zvakare inosanganisira peta yeoOríshas (mweya), yakafanana (uye pamwe yakatsanangurwa) iyo yeVoodoo yose.

MuSantería imwechete yeCantería "pataki", kana kuti nyanzvi Nhoroondo, maikadzikadzi veYemaha vakanyengerwa kuita zvepabonde nemwanakomana wavo Shango. Kuti afukidze kunyadziswa kwake panguva iyoyo, akaenda kune vanakomana vake vaviri, Inle uyewo Abbata, kuzoshevedza dzimba mujecha regungwa, vachichera rurimi rweInle pamwe nekuwana Abbata matsi. Nemhaka yezvizvi zvaro zvega uye kusarura, Inle naAbbita vanokura kuva shamwari dzepedyo dzakanaka uye vanoda, mune chinzvimbo chekutaura. Iyi pataki inogona kushandiswa kutsvaga iyo inokonzerwa nekubatana, kubatana, uye matsi uyewo ungochani.

Middle Eastern mythology

Nzvimbo dzeMesopotamiya neKanani dzaive dzakatorwa Kunyange mhemberero dzevamwe vose dzaive, kazhinji dzichinyatsonyatsopupura zvipupuriro uye vanamwari vezvinyorwa uye humwe huri pasi pemazita akasiyana.

Kubvira ku2000 BCE, inonyora zvakawanda zvevanhu vakabva kuna mwarikadzi Ninmah. Izvi zvinonzi "mukadzi asingagoni kubereka" uye "uyo asina mutezo wechikadzi kana nhengo yevakadzi", iyo inofungidzirwa kuva zvepabonde kana mukadzikadzi.Enki, mwari mukuru, ari kutora vanhu ivavo uye anogadzirisa mabasa aya tsika nokuti "naditu" (vapristakadzi) pamwe chete ne "girsequ" (vashumiri kupinda kuna mambo). Akkadian epic yakaoma Atrahasis ine chinyorwa ichi chinotevera, iyo Enzi anonyatsokumbira kuti yechinomwe iite "chechitatu" yevaya uyo ane varume vatatu-varume nevarume, varume vasina vakadzi, pamwe chete ne "dhimoni-kuba".

MuMesopotamiya, kunamatwa kwemwarikadzi uyu Inanna Akatsanangurwa "kuchema kuchema" kunoimbwa nevarume vanoita zvepabonde zve3rd vanonzi "gala". Maererano nemagwaro ekare eBhabhironi kuti vaprista ava vakatanga kusikwa vakagadzirirwa chinangwa ichi kubva kunaMwari Enki. Gala shomanana yakatora mazita echikadzi, uyewo shoko nega roga rinoreva "penis + anus", hinting in theirgymous stand. Chirwere chemadzinza, kana kuti "ini", chechirwere, chechitatu-yevakadzi kana kuti homoerotic shamwari yaive inenge iri chikamu chekufunga kuti ikozvino yakatobudiswa na Innana Enki pa "The Descent of Innana" kurota. , kuti hutano hwe "kurggaru" pamwe nevapristi "assinnu" huve hwakatambudzwa zvikuru kubva kuna mwarikadzi Ishtar, unoita kuti vakadzi ava vashandurwe. Kuchinja kwezvinhu kunogona kuwedzera kuve muridzi wemwarikadzi, kukonzera kushandurwa kwemanzwiro kana kuchenesa muviri.

Sangano pakati pe protagonist Gilgamesh uyewo iyeye "shamwari yepedyo" Enkidu paSumerian Epic yeGilgamesh yakashandurwa sechiitiko chemuviri nevanodzidza vanoverengeka vemazuva ano.Enkidu akazvarwa semumwe muGilgamesh kubva kuna mwarikadzi Aruru, zvakare akasvibiswa nenzira hwechifeve.Sezvo Gilgamesh neEnkidu vakange vave nemakore uye vakamira, rudo rwavo rwemudo rwakanga rwaonekwa seine chikonzero chinokonzera monolithic, zvichienzaniswa nevose pavheji ye pederastic style yekutanga kweGreece kana Persia.

Zoroastrianism

Ona mifananidzo yeLGBB uye Zoroastrianism

Zoroastrianism yakanzi ichokwadi kuva ne "ruvengo rwemurume Ichokwadi chinomiririrwa muzvinyorwa zvayo: Apo Ahriman," Mweya wekuda uye Rufu "pamwe chete ne" Ishe weNhema ", achiedza kukuvadza nyika yose, anobatanidzwa mukuzvidzivirira. Izvi zvinokurudzira kuzvidzora zvinokonzera "kuputika kwe simba rakaipa" nemigumisiro pakuuya kwemazana emadhimoni akaipa nemadhimoni. Ahriman ave achifungidzirwa seanotsigira avo vanodya zvepabonde. Zvisinei, kuratidzwa uku kwakaipa kwehuchani, kubva kuZoroastrianism hakuonekwi paGatas, bhuku ravo dzvene iro rinofanirwa kuva mazwi euporofita Zoroaster.

David naJonathan pa "La Somme le Roy" (1290 CE)

Kufa

Nhoroondo yaDhavhidhi naJonathan yakajekeswa sekuti The Association pakati paDavid naJonatani Yakanyanya kuputirwa muTesitamente Yekare Bhuku Rokutanga raSamueri, zvakare sechikamu chemufananidzo uyu wekukwira kwaDhavhidhi kumagetsi. Maonero eEgypt anowanikwa muexegesis anotaura sangano iri pakati pazvo zvose ishamwari yepedonic yakasimba. Zvisinei, pane gungano rekutevedzera kuwirirana pakati paDhavhidhi naJonatani zvepabonde kana zvepabonde.

Chimwezve gamba, Noa Areka kununura vanhu nevatsoropodzi vakaunza pamusoro pemafashamo akachinja kuva muki waini. Akadonha hope uye anonwa waini 1 masikati. Kana mwanakomana wake Hamu akapinda mucheche, anowana baba vake chaivo, uye Kanani, Mumwe wevanakomana vaHamu aizourayiwa nekudzingwa. MuchiJudha, zvinoreva kuti Hamu akaita zvepabonde achishandisa Noa kana kuti akamudzinga.

Judeo Christian

Saint Sebastian, nhoroondo yekare yekare yeBGBT pub.

Kuparadzwa kweSodhoma sezvakaratidzwa naSebastian Munster Dating yakarongedza vatsanangudzo vashomanana kuti vavimbire ava vaiva vateki. Mhedziso iyo yakanyanya kunyanya kuzivikanwa nemafungiro aya ichave iyo iyo mhemberero mumutauro wavo wekutenda, kubva mukutaura kwechiGiriki, inotsanangura ivo se "erastai", kana kunyange vateveri. Munyori wezvakaitika kare John Boswell akatenda ukama hwake nekuda kwechiitiko chechiKristu chekutanga chekuita zvepabonde, achimiririra maonero ake ehugari hwehugari hwechiKristu maonero ehugochani. Nzvimbo yakatarwa yeEastern Orthodox Church ndeyekuti tsika yeAsia yekare yeAdelphopoiiathat yakave yakagadzirirwa kubudisa "hukama" kubva pachigaro chaMwari, uye inogona kunge yakabatana nevanosangana nevane 2 'pasina migumisiro yepabonde.

Sainte Sebastian anogona kunge achiri muchengeti uyo ari gayi anogara kwenguva refu. Combo ye simba rake, risina utsinye humiro hwemiseve iyi inopinda mumuviri wake wose, uyewo chigadziro paanosangana nechisimba chakanyanya kufadza vatambi (vanoita zvepabonde kana kune imwe nzvimbo) kwemakore nemakore, zvakare yakatanga yekutanga machechi ega the 19thcentury.

Islamic uye Pre-Islamic Arabia

Vanhu vanotenda Kuramba Kugoverwa Kuvhara maJinn, mhepo dzine simba-dzinochinja-mhanya dzinobva "moto usina kupisa" (Qur'an 15: 27) iyo inofanirana mune imwe sarudzo yevatumwa vakazvarwa pamusoro pezuva rechishanu rekusika kubva kumashoko echiJudha Qabalistic, uyewo Bahir ("Chiedza") chakakonzerwa kubva "mumoto usingashayiwi." Vazhinji vanotenda kuti mano avo anovabatsira kugadzirisa zvepabonde asi izvo hazvisi zvisizvo zvose kuburikidza nezvose zvechiIslam asi ivo pachavo vanogona kufamba uye vanobhururuka zvakakurumidza masimba e maJinn avo izwi rokuti Jinn rinoreva "zvakavanzika kubva pakuona" uye dzimwe nguva dzinofanirwa kutungamirirwa naShataan (chiArabic nokuda kwe "Satani") (ndiani anogona kunge ari Dhiyabhorosi anowedzerawo kuti Islam nokuti Iblis "iye anokonzera kusuwa") , vachimiririra masimba emashiripiti uyewo kutapwa - uye vachiita sevanounza pfuma apo dhiyabhorosi anonzi.

Zvose izvi zvinosanganisira maJinn nekuda kwekupandukira kwaShayta kubva kurongwa urwu rwaMwari kuti abvumire kodzero dzaAdhamu yekushanda sepamusoro kupinda maJinn pamwe chete nekuramba kwake kutaura kuti "akasika kubva mumoto uye Adhamu akasikwa kubva muvhu" Iko kukwanisa kweJinn kuenda kune denga uye kunongedzera kune kutaura uku kwevatumwa uye zvakare kugadzirisa izvo zvavanenge vadzorera nekuzvinyora muzvioni uye mazwi akazvibatanidza pamwechete nemashiripiti (Qur'an 72: 8-10).

Majinini anoshandiswa Al-Jink uyewo Mukhannathunand Trans Gender uye Wanderers vane zveMweya uye varaidzo Mabasa. MuArabic neOikoumene civilizations, Varume nevakadzi, izvi sekuti muenzaniso Mukhannathun vave vari vanamati vakawanda vakaparadzira zvitendero zveMwari. Aya madzitateguru Al-lat, Al-Uza, ayo muArabic Pre-Islamic aivewo anofungidzirwa kuva hama dzaMwari asi akange athorwa sezvifananidzo zvenhema.

Zvinyorwa zveArabia zvinosanganisira zvitubu zvinonakidza zvinenge zvichiita zvepabonde-kuchinja kana matsime, aya sekuenzanisira somuenzaniso Al-Zahra. Kusvika pakushambidza kunwa kana kubva kuAra-Zahra, zvido zvepabonde zvinosangana. Nzvimbo yevanhu vose yeSwat, nechekuchamhembe kwePakistan inowanzova nehutano hwakafanana hwepabonde mu "vadiwa" inogona kunge iine mukomana akanaka kana wechidiki.

Zvinoreva kugadzirisa zvepabonde zvakashandurwa Nemashoko okuti "gay" haana kushandiswa kutsvaga zvepabonde pamberi pepakati pezana remakore re20. '' Mamwe maitiro ezvinyorwa anoshandiswa kuti ataure zvepabonde. maitiro akange asina kurega kutaura izwi nenzira ipi zvayo, izvo zvinoita kuti zvive zvakaoma kugadzirisa migumisiro yezvidzidzo zvekutsvakurudza.Asi zvisinei, tsanangudzo dzakawanda dzinosanganisira zvinhu zvakadai sechikamu chepfungwa (sekutarisa kwezvinodiwa zvepabonde) kana chikamu chekuita (izvo zvinangwa pamusoro pehutano hwehutano hwavo hwepabonde / s) Vamwe vanoda kuomerera kuzvitsanangudzo pachavo kana kuti munhu mumwe nomumwe. Tarisa ungochani nehuipi hwepabonde kune zvido zvinowanzoreva vanhu vanoita zvepabonde, vanoita zvepabonde uye vanoita zvepabonde (LGB).

Izvo zviitiko zvakakura zvevanhu vari kumaWest neichi chinongororwa zvinogona kuva nekuda kwemagariro evanhu. Pew Research Research's 2003 Global Attitudes Survey yakaona kuti "vanhu vari muAfrica uye kuMiddle East vanoramba zvakasimba kugamuchirwa kwevanhu vanoita zvepabonde. Mamiriro ehurochani mumarudzi eLatin America ane mvumo yepamutemo, asi, Mexico neBrazil vakaramba vachibvumirana panyaya iyi.

Maonero ezvitendero zvose nevatendi anosiyana nekupa mukufunga kuti hutano hunofananidzirwa zvepabonde uye zvepabonde huchava kukuratidzwa kwako kwekudenga. Zvimwe zvitendero zvinoparadzanisa kuita zvepabonde zvinogona kuitwa kuti uite zvepabonde (dzimwe nguva dzinobvumirwa chete kana zvakakodzera mumhuri uye munguva chaiyo), uyewo mamwe mabasa akaitwa nokuda kwepabonde, sehupombwe.

pfupiso

Tsika dzakasiyana-siyana mumakore uye dzinosanganisira Civilizations. Kuita zvepabonde - zvinodiwa zvekuita kwevanhu - zvinogona kubatanidzwa kune zvinoda zvitendero zvechitendero, kana kunyange chimwe nechimwe izvi. Replica uye zvepabonde zvirokwazvo zvechokwadi zvinhu mumagariro uye nekubatana kwevanhu. Kupfuura, "kurambidzwa kwepabonde" ndeyevamwe vese vese vanobudirira kune dzimwe nyika.

Zvitendero zvakawanda Zvakaziva zvinodiwa Mubvunzo we "zvakakodzera" basa rekunamata mumitambo yevanhu.Zvamwe zvitendero zvine mazano akasiyana-siyana ezvinyorwa, izvo zvinotungamirira zviito kana kuti nhume dzinokosha izvo zvinowanzoita mune dzimwe pfungwa dzakatambirwa kana mabasa.Kumwe kutenda kwakakonzera maitiro ehutsika kuvhara nyaya dzechirongwa, ruzivo, kutendeseka nezvimwe. Aya mazano anoda kuenzanisa mamiriro ezvinhu angayta kuti awedzere.

Kutenda kwaAbhurahama

Kubva kukutenda kwaBaha'í, hukama hwepabonde hunobvumirwa chete neBaha'un huchaita, muumbi weBaha'í Kutenda mubhuku rake remitemo, Kitabh-i-Aqdas, anorambidza zvepabonde zvepabonde. Kutenda kweBaha'í kunobvuma kuti kukosha kwechirwere ichi, zvisinei nokuti kushandiswa kwayo kwakakodzera kune musangano wekubatana; Baha'is havatendi mukudzvinyirirwa kwehutano hwavo hwepabonde asi mukutonga kwayo uye mutemo.

Chikirisitu

Zvave zvaratidzwa Chikamu ichi chakaputsika mune imwe chinyorwa chinonzi chiKristu uye zvitsva.

Tarisa Ufeve, chiKristu uye zvepabonde, ungochani uye chiKristu, pamwechete nevatsvene vePhallic

New Testament

Ichi chikamu Chinodiwa, zvakare chichave chakanyanyisa kutarisa ruzivo rwezvikamu Zvikamu. Ingodzokorora rondedzero iyi maererano nemirayiridzo yakarongwa kubva muBhuku reTsika.

Pauro Mupositora akati mu 1 VAKORIKE Kuti Zvakanaka Kwazvo kuti mutorwa arambe akadaro, zvisinei kana zvisingayti kuti vazvidzivirire, zvino vanofanira kutora, "Kune vasina kuroora uye chirikadzi ndinoti Zvakanaka kuti varambe vasina kuroorwa sezvandiri ini.Kunokosha, maonero aPauro nezvehutano huchavawo echokwadi hauna maturo kune ani zvake ane zvipo zvimwe zvipo (zvichida "celibacy").

Nyanzvi yeTestamente Itsva NT Wright inotaura kuti Pauro Unzenza hwakarambidzwa neHedheni, pasinei nemakiriniki echiKristu apfuura. Wright manotsi "Kana vaKorinde vaizoti, 'Nemhaka yokuti ndiri muKorinde, ndagara ndichitsvaka musikana wevasikana shamwari dzangu dzandinorara, iyo chikamu chekubudirira kwedu,' Pauro aizopindura, 'Kwete nhasi uri muKristu iwe zvechokwadi hausi. '

Vamwewo vakaratidza kuti mishonga yaPauro yepabonde yakagadziriswa nehutano hwake hwekuti nyika iri kuguma yave iri pedo. Pasi pemaonero aya, Pauro, achifungidzira kuti nyika ichafema, yakatora izvi izvo zvinonyanya kunetseka, zvakadai sekuita zvepabonde, kana zvichitarisira maKristu. Tsamba dzaPauro dzinoratidza kutambudzika nezvinetso zvakaenzaniswa nevanyori vevhangeri vanoremekedzwa kuna Jesu, sezvo Pauro ave achiita zvikwata zvechiKristu uye achiita zvinoenderana nenyaya dzakamuka.

Nyanzvi yezvechitendero Lee Gatiss inoti "shoko rokuti" Tizai kuita zvepabonde (porneia) nekudzingirira rudo "(cf. 1 Thess 4: 1 - 8) ndiyo mharidzo yakananga kuvaKristu vari munyika inoita zvepabonde."

Historical Christianity

MuchiKristu, kuratidzirwa pamagwaro anonyorwa zvinyorwa zvichitaura chirevo chechihedheni mukunyorwa kweBhuku raGenesi. Munda weEdheni wakanzi uri hurumende huripo kuvaKristu vakakwanisa kuedza; vanyori vakarondedzera mufaro weDenga mukuropafadzwa kwaAdhamu naEvha mukati memashoko ake.

Iko kuongororwa kwemhandara kubva kune kereke yakakwezva Mukununura kuti dambudziko pakati pemirairo yako yeGenesisi "kubereka uye kuwedzera" ine chirevo chayo chaicho chinozivikanwa chekushamwaridzana sekuve sangano rezvemagariro evanhu, uyewo nekududzirwa kwehukuru hwakanaka hwoumhandara panguva yekubatana, Kuita zvepabonde uye kugadzirwa kwemhuri kunopesana neEvhangeri yako Mate 19: 11-12, Matt 19: 29 Nzira ye 1 rudzi rwemadzinza rwakaedza kuisa pfungwa kuti magwaro aya akanga ari panguva iyo kwakanga kusina kurara muEdheni: panguva yekuverenga iyi, gadziriro yakaitika kutevera kuparara kwevanhu uye nekudzingwa kubva muEdheni, nokudaro nekusimudzira huri mhandara pamwe nemamiriro ezvinhu akanaka kubva kuParadhiso yekare pamwe neDenga rakatarwa.John Chrysostom, Gregory weNysa, Justin Martyr, Epiphanius weSaramisi, naIrenaeus weLyons vose vakagamuchira pfungwa iyi:

Gregory weNyssa, Pamhandara, 1 2 "Akanga asati ava 15.2" Sei mararamiro asina kuonekwa pamberi pekunyengera? Sei kusina kurara pabaradhiso? Sei zvisingayti marwadzo ekuberekwa kwekutanga mushure mokutukwa? Nokuti panguva iyo zvinhu izvi zvakanga zvisina kunaka ".

Irenaeus, Agaynst Agaynst Heresies, Bhuku 3, ch 22: 4 "Asi Evha akanga asingateereri, nokuti haana kuteerera paakanga achiri mhandara uye saiye, ane murume, Adhamu, asi zvakadaro achiri mhandara (nokuti muParadhiso ivo vose vakanga vasina kupfeka, uye havana kunyara, sezvo ivo, vakasikwa kwenguva pfupi kare, vakanga vasina kunzwisisa nekuberekwa kwevana: nokuti zvakanga zvakafanira kuti vaifanira kutanga kusvika pakukwegura, uye zvino kuwedzera kubva panguva iyoyo zvichienda mberi), zvange zvisingateereri, yakave chikonzero chekufa, zvose kune iye oga uye kuvanhu vose ... "

Epiphanius yeSarami, Panarion 78.17-19 "Uye sekuparadhiso Evha, achiri mhandara, akawira muzvivi zvekusateerera, zvakare zvakare kuburikidza neMhandara yakauya kuteerera kwe nyasha".

Justin Martyr, Hurukuro naTripho ch aMazana "Evha, uyo akanga ari mhandara uye asina kusvibiswa, abereka pamuviri wezwi nyoka, akaunza kusateerera nekufa. Asi Mhandara Mariya akagamuchira kutenda nemufaro, apo mutumwa Gabrieri akazivisa mashoko akanaka kwaari ... "

Purofesa John Noonan inoratidza kuti "kana mumwe akabvunza ... apo mababa vechiKristu vakatora pfungwa dzavo pamusoro pepabonde - maonero asina zvinyorwa zveBhaibheri - mhinduro inofanira kuva, kunyanya kubva kuStoiki". Anoshandisa magwaro kubva kuna Musonius Rufus, Seneca Muduku, pamwe chete naOcellus Lucanus, kuongorora kuchashanda kwaClement weArekizandriya, Origen naJerome kuita mabasa emaapiyona aya nokukurumidza, kunyanya sekubatanidza nekushandiswa kwechirevo chekuita kwavo kwepfungwa, izvo paStoic version inofanira kuderedzwa, kusununguka, uye yakagadziriswa nechinangwa chayo chekusika.

Augustine weHippo aida mubvunzo The glitches of Manichaeism. Kunyange Manichees, maererano naAugustine, vakapedzisa "kupesana nemukaro, nokuti vanopesana nekuberekwa iyo ndiyo chinangwa chokuroorana". "Nzira yekudzivirira kubata pamuviri inoshandiswa neManichees avo vaAugustine vaiziva kushandiswa kwebasa rakaipa sezvakagadzirirwa nemutauro wechiGiriki ", iyo Augustine inopomera (izvi zvinomirirwa zvakafanana panguva ino zvichibvumira kushandiswa kweKaturike kwehutano hwemhuri).

Upenyu hwemadzimai hwevanhu vemunharaunda semagariro akakura Akauya ne 2 pavanotsvakurudza vezvechitendero, John Cassian uyewo Kesariya weArles, Ivo vakataura nezve "zvinhu zvakaipa" zvehupenyu hwavo. "Zvinetso zvavo zvaisava nekuita bonhora, asi nemamongi akapika kuchena. Mhiko yevatendi Yakagadzirwa kanagasm chiito; chiito chakatarwa chisina kunaka ... Chaizvoizvo ... mberi kweCassian, Kurumbidzwa kwakanga kusingatenderwi kuita zvepabonde kune munhu wose. "

Catholicism

Cherechedzawo: Dzidzo yeMuviri Wako uye maonero echitendero. bonyora

Pakutanga kwezana remakore, kunyange chechi yeKaturike yakabvumirana yakabatanidzwa pakati pemukadzi akabhabhatidzwa uye munhu kuti ave sakaramende - chiratidzo chekunze chinopa chipo cheicho chaMwari chaiye. Dare reFlorence mu1438 rakapa ruremekedzo iyi, mushure mekutaura kweChechi kubva ku1208, zvakare rakasimbisa kubatana kwakaratidza kuva kubatanidzwa kubva mumuchato waKristu kubva kuChechi. Kunyange zvakadaro vaPuritan, apo vachiongorora zvakanyanya sangano, vakaona kubatana se "chibvumirano", zvisingaenzaniswi nechinhu chinowanzoitwa "chechitendero," iye zvino kuva "pasi pekutonga kwematare edzimhosva". Izvi chaizvoizvo ndezvokuti ivo vanga vasati vasati vatongerwa kuti vawane vafundisi. Zvakare, kubatana kwave kwataurwa kunoshanda se "kusunungurwa kwekugadzirisa" mune zvechimwe chinangwa chemweya.

Papa John Paul II Chikoro Chekutanga Chekutanga chakange chakakomberedza dzidziso yehuMwari Muviri wako, wakapiwa neshoko rimwechete. Mukati mehupenyu hwemakore e5 iye achiri kujekesa maziso ehutano izvo zvakanga zvisina kujekesa uye zvakanaka asi zvaive pamusoro pekuponeswa, kwete kutongwa. Akarayira kuti vanhu vakaitwa naMwari ane rudo kuti vawane chinangwa: kuva varume vanonamatira avo vanosarudza kuda kuzvipa ivo pachavo. kuita zvepabonde pakati pemudzimai nemurume kunongova chiratidzo chaicho mukati mavo. [kuongorora?]

Anotaura kuti hapana chimwezve chinyorwa chisina chakanaka chekubatana pamwe nekudyidzana kwaMwari mune rudo rwekufananidzwa nekuenzaniswa nekuita mabasa ehupenyu evanhu vari vaviri, apo vanozvipa ivo nenzira yakazara yose - mumunhu chete, uye kumusoro kusvika pakupera kweizvi hupenyu hwomunhu, uyewo nenzira yakanakisisa inopa rupo yekubatanidzwa mukuiswa kwevanhu vatsva. Nenzira iyi, anoziva unzenza hwepabonde. Icho chinonyangadza izwi rechimiro chavo, ruzivo rwekushamwaridzana kwese kushandisa sarudzo yako kuti uwane magumo ekufungidzira, akakodzera kurapa varume vakaita zvinhu pamwe nenyaya, kusiyana nekutarisana nevarume vaIgbo pamwechete vachishandisa kufara uye kuremekedzwa kwose mweya inofanirwa. John Paul II anonetseka kuti paiva nekubwinya murudo mushure mekunge kwave nekukwanisa kwose kwekuzvipira kwakakonzerwa nekuzvipa. Kune ini pachedu, rudo urwu runogona kunge rwuri chaizvoizvo rwechimiro chekunamata.

MaRoma Katurike anofunga kuti kuita bonhora kunogona kuva chivi.

Chipurotesitendi

Vese vaPurotesitendi vanopikisa iyo uye chero zvepabonde kunze kwekubatana, somuenzaniso iyo yakamhanya pakati pevamwe varume vanoita zvechani, kana vakaroorana, inogona kuva iyo chivi cheupombwe. Izvi zvinorambidza zvepabonde zvinosanganisira zvipfeko zvakasununguka.

Kusiyana nevakawanda veRoma Katurike, maPurotesitendi havabvumi zveMasturbation nekuda kwekushayikwa kwemazano eBhaibheri anopesana neizvi. VaPurotesitendi vanochengetedza uye Vanoparidza zvikuru kunyange zvazvo kune zvipingamupinyi, sekuonekwa kune vanhu kana kuchiva kana kuvimba kune chiito kana kuti kuisa chokwadi kuti hazvikonzeri kushandisa zvinonyadzisira, kuita bonhora hakusi chivi chete. Hazvifaniri kuitiswa pamweya wekuzvidza kubva kuna Mwari.

Chechi yeEvangelical muGermany uye kuNetherlands neSwitzerland kuona kwekuputsa murairo uyu. Machechi akadaro, United uyewo maReformed machechi vashumiri havabvumirwi muushumiri uye varume vanoita zvepabonde havabvumirwi mukati memachechi avo.

Eva Brunner anogona kunge achinyatsova bondexual.

Kunyange Metropolitan Community Church, iyo inonziwo Universal Fellowship yeMetropolitan Community Churches, inosanganisira kuparidzira kune vanoita zvepabonde, vanoita zvepabonde, bondexual, uye vemadzinza uye mhuri.

Kubva muchechi yeAnglican kusabvumirana kuri mukati mechikomborero cheungochani pamwe nekutsungirira kune vakaroorana. Nharo yacho yakawanda pamusoro pechikamu cherudo pakati pevanhu vane 2 vane humwe hutano hwakadaro pane hukama sezvo zvese zvine chokuita nehutano hwemurudo. Mune dzimwe dzidziso dzakasiyana-siyana, machechi eAnglican (Episcopal) muCanada uye USA inobvumira vaparidzi vanoita zvepabonde mumusangano uye vanokoka mapoka ehurume akafanana, izvo zvakakonzera kutsoropodzwa kukuru kubva kumativi akasiyana-siyana eAnglican Communion. Machechi ari mukati mematunhu eAfrica anonyanya kurindira mune zvaanoita kune ungochani. Vapristi vazhinji muzvizhinji zvekereke dzeAnglican vanofanirwa kunge vaine chidimbu kana vachida kuita basa ravo.

Mormonism

Kunyange chechi yeLDS Haibvumiri kutaura chero kupi zvako kuti vatore nevarume nevakadzi vanoita zvepabonde.

Pamusoro pemapazi eMormonism the Basic Principle Denomination iyo Sangano reLDS rinorayira maonero pamusoro pekuvimbika mukati meMutemo weUtsvene hunotsigira kuti kuchiva, hutano hwepabonde uye husati hwawedzera, uyewo zvepabonde zvave zvitadzo. Kubva ku1800s yakagonesa kuva nemukati uye kuva nevana pamwe chete nevasikana kuti vave vakaroorana panguva imwe chete kune vakomana.

Pazviitiko vatungamiri vechechi yeLDS vakadzidza Nhengo havafaniri kuita nharo sechikamu chekuteerera mumutemo weLDS weutsvene. Ichechi yeLDS inofunga kuti zvimwe zvepabonde zvingava zvechokwadi chaizvoizvo chivi uye zvepabonde kunze kwechato chinonyangadza. Mwari anofungidzirwa kuti ari kubatana neKudenga Amai Amai uye vaMormoni vanotenda zvechokwadi kuti kubatana chaizvoizvo izvo Mwari anoda kune vana vake pachavo. Vatungamiri vechechi yekutanga yeLDS vanoshandiswa kuratidza zvinonakidza kune vanhu chaiwo chaiwo chaiwo nehutano hwakanga hwakanga huri chivi kana chirwere chinogona kuchinjwa kana kugadziriswa, asi nhasi vane zero pakatarisana ne etiology yehurochani, uyewo kudzidzisa kurapa kwakatsaurirwa kune kushandura kugadzirisa zvepabonde kwakafanana zvakashata zvose. Vanhukadzi, vanoita zvouchani, uye vanoita zvepabonde ', saka, vakasiyiwa nechisarudzo chose chekuedza kugadzirisa maitiro avo ekuita zvepabonde, kunyange kuisa maitiro akasiyana-siyana maererano neukama hwebonde, kana kuti kunyange kurarama hupenyu hwemaitiro asina hutano (sekuita bonhora) .

Ichechi yeLDS inodzidzisa kuti basa rinoitwa nevakadzi richave Rokurera vana. Sezvo kuva vakadzi vari kugara, Vasikana vakaramba basa, vave vachionekwa sevasvibiswa uye vasina kufanira. Pamberi pe1890 vatungamiriri veMormon vaidzidzisa kuti mitaka yakanga iri nzira iri nyore yekuponesa uye shamwari dzakawanda dzevasikana kune 1900s, pamwe chete nevakadzi vashoma vaiita.

Kutenda kweMormon kunodzidzisa kuti kubatana kunofanira kunge kuri kushandisa Munhu uyewokadzi. Kutenda kweMormon kunorambidza maitiro ose, kana angave akaroora kana kuroorwa. Kudzoka munaVaRoma 1: 24-32, Pauro akaparidzira vaRoma kuti mufambiro waiva chivi. Kudzoka munaRevhitiko 20: 13, Mosesi aive nemafambiro uye mabasa aipesana nezvinodiwa naMwari. Kubva ku1830s, '' Mutungamiri weLDS Joseph Smith akaita kliniki yega. Kereke yehurukuro yerusununguko yakachengetedza kliniki. Kereke yekliniki yakambomira. Nemhaka yokuti kuguma kwegoreka, vaMormon vakatenda mukubatana pakati pevanhu vane 2 vakasiyana, uyewo avo vane 2 vakasiyana sevakadzi uye zvakare murume chaiye. Kunyangwe boka reLDS rinotaura izvo zvarinosangana nevanhurume kana vanhurume sevana nevanin'ina vaIshe wavo, zvisinei kana vachifanira kuzvibata pane zvavanoda ivo chaizvoizvo vakave munzvimbo yechechi iyi.

Unity Church

Kunyange zvazvo Chechi yeUnited ari panheyo pahwaro hwayo pachayo yakapa minyengetero Kubudirira kwehurochani, kereke yakagara ichigadzirisa pachena mashomanana vashumiri, anotanga naErnest C. Wilson, vakange vakagadzwa seushumiri kuburikidza nomusiki Charles Fillmore, akaiswa mune imwe kereke kuHollywood, California pakuziva maitiro ake.

ChiIslram

Islam inokurudzira kuroorana kwechimiro chekuita, inofungidzirwa neye uye nokuti iyo iyo inogadzirisa munhu mumwechete 'kubatana. Ndima dzeku Qurani dzakagoneka kutongerwa kune varume veMuslim kuti varoore vasikana mune dzimwe dzidziso dzevaAbrahama (kureva vaJudha neVaKristu), chero bedzi vakadzi vaviri vakavimbika (vanobvuma) pamitemo yavo yechitendero. Nyanzvi dzemazuva ano zvakare dzakazivisa mutongo uyu. Musikana wechiMuslim, pane flip side, anobvumirwa kuroorwa nemunhu muMuslim kuitira kuti akwanise kuroora munhu achati vana vanogona kukura sevasingazivi. Sangano rekubatana musikana wechiMuslim uyewo munhuwo zvinoonekwa sechinhu chisina basa uye chinorambidzwa, uye zviri pamutemo mune chimwe chinhu. Chimwezve chikonzero chichava kuvimbisa kodzero dzemadzimai dzinonzwisiswa pamubatanidzwa.

Mhando dzakawanda dzekuita zvepabonde mumubvumirano dzose dzinobvumirwa. Gender inotaridzirwa semutoro, chaizvoizvo basa, pamwe nekugutsa. Haiti yehaithiti imwe inotaura kuti kuwana murume kuti ave nemurume kana mudzimai wepabonde kunogona kunge chaizvoizvo kungoita basa rakanaka rinoremekedzwa naMwari. Hateiti inotevera inoreva kuti musikana asati azadzika, munhu haafaniri kubva pamatesi, kutaura zvinhu zvenyika.

Kuvharidzirwa kubata Anosangana naye Paanoenda kumwedzi. Muchiitiko ichi, zvimwe zvekuita zvepabonde (kufanana nekutsvoda uye zvimwe zvepabonde izvo zvisingashandisi zvinhu zvakadai semudzimai Con-Tact) zvinonyatsobvumirwa. Ukama hwenguva pfupi (mut'a, kubatanidzwa kwekugadzwa kwenguva yakareba) yakarambidzwa nevakawanda veSunni dzidzo, asi inopiwa neShia dzidzo dzekudzidzisa. Gakava rave riri pariri rakarurama.

Upombwe hunopa kurangwa. Kuita zvepabonde pabonde kunotendwa kutadza kwete semasimba. Imwe mitemo ye shari'a nemitemo inoronga maitiro inobatana nevarume nevakadzi zvakafanana.

Iwe uchawana kupesana maonero. Apo dzimwe nyanzvi dzisiri pamutemo dzichitaura uye dzichitenda kuti kupara kwemafungiro echiIslam kune vamwe (somuenzaniso seVose vehupi huzivi hweHanbali) funga kuti Vanhu vanochera kubva kuzvidya mwoyo pamusoro pekuita ufeve kana kuvhunduka Masimba haana kuwana chinhu chisina kukodzera uye haatongororwi kana (uye apo kana) ivo vave vachiedza Kurwisana. Maererano nehaithiti varume vanokokwa nokukurumidza Sevamwe nzira yekudzivisa kunyengedzwa pamwechete nemafungiro emweya kana ufeve Kutaurirana nehupombwe kunze kwekubatana kunoodzwa mwoyo.

ChiJudaism

Pachiratidzo chechiJudha chechigarire, zvepabonde uye kubereka ndizvo zvaizoita zviito zvakanakisisa zvaunogona kuita, chiito icho chaunogona kutevedzera Mwari, "Musiki", uyewo kuitira kuti urambe utsvene huchawana mitsara yakawanda uye mazano. Izvo zvinenge zvisingadikanwi, uye zvinogona kunyatsodiwa. Zvinoshungurudza ukama hwepabonde kunze kwekuroora, kuchengetedza kugadzirisa kune hukama mukati memubatanidzwa unosanganisira kuchengetwa kwevose niddah, kurambidzwa kwekubatana kwekutora span tzniut, uye kunosanganisira nguva, izvo zvinodiwa zvekuita uye nguo dzechiJudha Chiitiko chezvechiJudha varume vanoita zvepabonde nevarume vakuru zviito zveupombwe, kuparara kwechibvumirano chemuviri, pamwe nekuchiva sezvivi.IchiJudha inobvumira kurambana, pamwe chete nevose veOrthodox yechiJudha uye chiJudha chekuchengetedza chikonzero chekuita kurambana mumweya kurambidza kurambana vanozivikanwa Munyika yose inofamba muchiJudha chitenda kuti rusununguko rwakapamba rusununguko rwechiJudha rwunosunga asi rwunokurudzira uye rwakapfuudza, saka rwakagadzirirwa maonero pakuchengeta kushandisa kumadokero mabudiro emambo.

Zvizhinji zvechiJudha chechiJudha hazvibvumi Kunyange zvakadaro vanhu vazhinji vanozvitenda pachavo sevaJudha uye vanovhiringidza. Mumwe mukuru mukuru wevarabhi uyo achanyatsotora aizove Sharon Kleinbaum uyo ave achitungamira mu Reconstructions Judaism iyo inofunga mitemo yebhaibheri yebhaibheri panzvimbo yekuti inonzi yakasunga, asi inogona kurapwa sekuva mutsika yakasara iyo inofanira kuchengetedzwa kunze kwekunge kune zvigaro zvayo. Ndiye mufundisi mukuru paBeat Simchat Torah muNew York iyo inoshanda mumwe nomumwe weAmerican denomination; R Kleinbaum inotaura kuti mapurisa anogona kunge ari kunyanya kusarudza izvo zvisingatauri maitiro echiJudha anocherechedza. Vamwe vaJudha vanonyadzisa vanowedzera zvakare vatateguru vebhaibheri nevakadzi vazhinji uye varongo kuti ukama hwepamusoro huve hutsvene muchiJudha. Kwakanga kune runyora rwemaimeri rinonyanya kuzivikanwa nevaJudha vainyanyisa, vanonzi AhavaRaba, iyo inofananidzwa ne "rudo rukuru" kubva muchiHebheru. (Zvarinotaura zvinoratidza kuti munyengetero weAhava rabbah unoratidza vazhinji nekuda kwe "rudo rukuru" rwaMwari.)

Conservative

Chirevo chechiJudha chekuchengetedza, mumutsetse nemafungiro ayo Halakha (mutemo wechiJudha) inogona kuva bhuku rinosungirirwa pamusoro pehupenyu hwemazuva ese hwemaJudha asi hunogona kuchinja nguva nenguva kubva kuRabbinate, rakagadza matanho akawanda anoonekwa nechiJudha cheOrthodox. Kunyanya, muna December 2006, Komiti yechiJudha yeCenservative yeMutemo wechiJudha nemitemo yakagamuchira maitiro anopesana. Yakagamuchira chirevo ichi chichidzivisa kurambidzwa kwepakutanga kwehutano hwemadzimai kune varume-varume vanorara pabonde chete, izvo zvakazivisa ndezvokurambidza kweBhaibheri chete, kuzivisa zvinorambidzwa zvakasiyana (semuviri murume-murume munyaya dzepabonde zvepabonde kana zvepabonde) rabhibiprohibitions pamwe nekusimudza maitiro aRabhibhi akafanotaurwa mukududzirwa kwayo kweTalmudic dzidziso yeKeodod HaBriyot ("chiremera chevanhu"). Iro yakabvumira kukomborerwa kwevabonde uye vanoita zvepabonde uye kugadza vasati varochani nevadzidzisi vemabonde avo vanobvuma kuti vasamboita zvepabonde asi vachideredza kuvaka rudzi rweukama hwevanhukadzi. Iko maonero echetori wenhau pamusoro pezviito zvevarume .Chenjeri inobvumira vanamadzi vemunhu, ungano, pamwechete nemakoroji kuti aise chinangwa chavo. Izvi zvinoratidza kuti kuchinja muhombodo inorambidzwa makiriniki evanhukadzi. Iyo inobvuma kusiyana kwemaonero pamusoro pezvinetso muChiJudha cheCervervative, zvokuti hapana imwe nzira yeCervervative yechiJudha yezvinhu zvechirongwa. Chirevo chechiJudha chekuchengetedza panguva ino chinoparadzanisa kuparadzaniswa pakati pezvakaitika uye zvinyorwa zvemashoko pane zvidzidzo zvemazuva ano maAmerica.

Chirevo chechiJudha chekuchengetedza chirevo chakataurira pamabhuku ayo nhamba Yezvimirambidzwa nezvinodiwa, somuenzaniso zvinodikanwa kuti vakadzi vachengetedze kurambidzwa kwakakwana kwetsika pamwe nemitemo yemhuri. Imba inozikanwa mitemo inoda kuti vasikana vanyatsonzwisise sevaniddah kana kuti tumah mukati mekuenda kwavo kumwedzi. Kungofanana neve tumah, musikana aizova zvechokwadi kumirira kwemavhiki manomwe nekuda kwekuenda kumwedzi kuti abvise shure kwemazuva manomwe e "mazuva akachena" kuitira kuti apinde mumapveh uye atange kuita zvepabonde.Nenguva iyoyo, zvinorambidzwa kuwana chero kushamwaridzana nevose vanoita nhengo dzese dzisina kubvumirwa dzinobvumidzwa pamwe chete uye kuti iye anopfigira haafaniri kugunzwa.Zuva rimwechete masikati apo Komiti yeMutemo wechiJudha nemitemo yakabudisa hukama hwehurochani inopindura, yakabudisa mashoko asingaverengeki pamusoro penyaya ye niddah iyo inosanganisira mhinduro yekusimudza mimwe mitemo inowanikwa pamusoro pemurume-mudzimai mudzimai-kugadzirisa nguva yose yechirwere panguva yekusimudzira kurambidzwa kwehukama hwepabonde.Kubata kwehupombwe kunoshandiswa musangano weCervervative nenzira yekuti niddah kuve nekudzivisa kubvumidzwa kweBhaibheri kubva kune vanoita zvepabonde nekusimudza miganhu iyo yainzi Rabbinic muhupenyu.Kunyange mhinduro yakaratidza kuti ingadai ichigadzira kuenzanisira kunonzwisisira kunosanganisira nzira iyo vanhu vanoita gay les ivo vari mukukudzwa kwavo kuchengetedza kubva kune mamwe mabasa uye mazano avo kune niddah: sei

Tinotarisira vadzidzi kuti vaone izvi 'kutonga Responsum isu tiri kutarisira kuti vadzidzi vatarise kuti kutonga kweCJLS. Mukuwedzera, isu tinotarisira kuti magweta emakambani, vatungamiri, koreji uye vamwe vekoroji vadzidzi vanogona kukudza kusurukirwa uye kukudzwa kwevadzidzi vanoita zvechikadzi nevanokanganisa asi nenzira imwecheteyo vanokudza kusurukirwa uye kuremekedzwa kwepashure vevadzidzi.

Izvo zvakarayirwa Vanhu kuti vasashande se "vanoita zvepabonde" zvakare zvigadzirire kuwana "mararamiro emadzitateguru" pose paunokwanisa, pamwe zvichida zvichida usingasimudziri nechinangwa kana kugadzirisa chero humwe hutano hwehurumende pane unhu husati huri mumba.

Pamberi pemagetsi pamusoro pepabonde, izvi zvinenge zvave zvichinyatsobviswa mumasangano ehurumende. Nenzira yekuti, pose apo iyo Jewish Theological Seminary yeAmerica yakaratidza Kuisa purogiramu yemishuwarenzi kubva paugaro hwekugara pamwe nevamwe vanogara pamwe nekupemberera kunokonzera kubviswa kwezvirongwa zvavo.

Chirongwa chechiJudha chinochengetedza zviri pamutemo chibvumirano kubatana Uye zvinoratidzika zvino zvinoreva kuti rabbi iyo inobatanidza hutendi yehurumende ichadzingwa neicho. Iyo inochengetedza kugadziriswa kwezvipfeko semuenzaniso kurambidzwa kwekubvuma vanhu uye kugamuchira zvinyorwa zvekuuya mumasinagogi esinagogi nokuda kwevana pamama. Inter faith union yakapararira pamusoro pezita reCervervative, uyewo kuenderera kweCervervative kwakagadzirisa chirongwa chekuumbwa nemadzimai mune tariro yevana vavo pachiJudha.

Chirongwa chechiJudha chekuchengetedza, icho chakanga chiri chekuwana zvakawanda zvei 20thcentury Chikuru chechiJudha chechitendero chinobva kuUnited States chakasangana nechisimba mumusangano wesinagogi kuUnited States kuti makumi mapfumbamwe makumi mapfumbamwe makumi matatu, ne51 muzana yevhangeri vesinagogi mu 1990 pamusoro pe 33.1percent mu2001, ne zhinji yekurasikirwa nekushanyira Orthodox yechiJudha uyewo yakawanda yezvasara zveRudziro. Iko kunokonzera muAmerica yemazuva ano tsika dzekutaura pakati pekusununguka uyewo maonero echetendisiti pamusoro pepabonde pamwe nemimwe nyaya, kuwedzera kune kusiyana pakati pezvinyorwa zvepamusoro uye zvakarewo keseji yevisivhesi visavis madhetestinist uye mahedheni, zvingave zvakatungamirira kuderedza .

Orthodox

Iko Kune zvakawanda zvekuchengetedza uku uye Nekunyepedzera kuzvininipisa (tzniut), sezvakataurwa neOrthodox Judaism, sezvo yakabva kune zvakakosha mumidziyo mu halakha. Kucherechedza kwemitemo iyoyo kunoshandiswa kumanikidziro kuenderera mberi kumativi ose eOrdodox kugadzirisa uye kuchengetedza.

ChiJudha cheOrthodox kuwedzerwa kuchengetedza kurambidzwa kwekubatana kwechitendero neukama. ChiJudha cheOrthodox, zvisingaverengeki nedzidziso dzechiJudha, dzinoramba dzichiremerera zvisinganzwisisiki zvisingabatsiri zvekurambana, kunyange semuenzaniso kurambidzwa kweBhaibheri kune Kohen (muzukuru wevapirisiti waAroni) kupa mumwe murume kana mukadzi kana mudzimai akabatanidzwa mumhando dzakasiyana dzehupombwe. Mutemo weOrthodox wokurambana unosungirwa kuti unzwisiswe.

Kuchinja, Kugadzirisazve uyewo Humanistic

Kuchinja kwechiJudha, chiJudha chechiJudha, pamwe chete neRonstructionist Judaism kazhinji haigoni kupemberera kana kukumbira mitemo yekuvigwa kwemaitiro evanhu uye kugamuchira shamwari dzakagamuchirwa uye kubatsirana masangano evanhu uye kuzvipira kwemhemberero.

Kuvandudzwa uye Kugadziriswa Zvitendero zvechiJudha zvishoma nezvishoma zvinotsungirira. Rababhi munharaunda, uye kubatana kungayta iwe. Unhu hwechiJudha hunobvumira kubatana. Kugadziridza, Kuvandudzwa, uye ChiJudha chechiJudha zvinowedzerawo hazvirevi kutora rubatsiro rwekurambana kunopikisa gweta rekurambana.

Yakave yakagadzirirwa mafungiro ekuregerera kwekuti Kuchinja, Kugadzirisa, uye hukama hwechiJudha hunotungamirirwa nemhando dzakasiyana-siyana uye hutendi huri pamwe hunove hwakakonzera kukura kwehuwandu hwehuwandu hwavo mumakore makumi mapfumbamwe, zvichienzaniswa ne33 muzana yevana vanobatana neimba ye38 muzana , iyo inoita kuti ishandise ChiJudha chekuchengetedza chivimbiso nechisimba chikuru chechiJudha muUnited States.

ChiBhudha

Nzira Yakawanda Kwazvo Inowanzosangana neBuddhist kutendeseka yaizove Mitemo Ichishanu uyewo yeNewbleight Eightfold Path, iyo inotaura izvi iwe unofanirwa kubatanidzwa mukuda kwepabonde. Zvose izvi zvinyorwa zvinosarudza maitiro ezvokuzvidira, zvichida zvichida kwete mirayiridzo yekudenga kana simba.

Pamusoro pemitemo mishanu, iyo huru inofanira kunge ichiwedzera kubva kune zvepabonde Nevamwe vanhu 'muvakidzani, mumwe munhu ari pasi pezera (kureva, avo vanodzivirirwa nevabereki vavo kana vatarisi), uye avo vakagamuchira mhiko dzekudzivirira kwechitendero. Rega kubva pamabasa ose ehupombwe uye Buddha inonzi yakakurudzira vateveri vake kuti varege kusachena "sekunge kwaiva gomba rinopisa."

ChiHindu

  • Neopaganism

Zvose zvinoitwa nemufaro uye rudo zvingadai zvose [kuti 'Mwarikadzi'] tsika ", kuita mvumo kune vose kana chero marudzi ezvokuita zvepabonde kune vadzidzisi veWiccan.

Kubva kuGadnerian neAlexandria marudzi eWicca, "Great Rite" ndiyo tsika yemhando dzevanhukadzi. Farai majeri ezere, akaitwa nemupristi Gemberera Wiccan Mwari uyekadzikadzikadzi. Rite Rite yakaitwa nenzira yekufananidzira Kushandisa iyo uye Chalice sechiratidzo chemukadzi uye chirume chake. Chimiro chetsika chinogadzirwa nevanokura vakura uye Pamwechete. Guru Rite haritaridzi sevariro yepabonde.

  • Satanism

LaVeyan Sataniism chikamu cheAbhurahama chinoshushikana, achifunga nezvekudzivirira kusimba uye zvakadaro. VaSatani ndevamwe vanhu vakawanda, vanoda varoyi, vadzidzisi vebonde, vanoita zvepabonde, BDSM, polyamorists, varume nevakadzi vanoita zvepabonde, uye asexual. Kuita zvepabonde kunofungidzirwa sekutevera. Vane gumi nemasere Sataniic Mitemo yePasi vanongopa mirayiridzo miviri pamusoro pehutano: "Usaita zvepabonde kunze kwekunge iwe uchipiwa chiratidzo chekugadzirisa" uye "Usakuvadza vana vaduku", kunyange zvazvo yekupedzisira kwaizove kwakakura uye kunowedzera kushandiswa kwemuviri nekuwedzera. Yakambove iri chikamu chinoramba chiripo cheScS chirongwa nokuti yakatanga mu 1966, sezvo Peter H. Gillmore akanyora mukati mehurukuro inokurudzira ukama hwakafanana hwepabonde: "Pakupedzisira, sezvo vamwe vanhu vachiedza kuratidza kuti maonero edu panyaya dzepabonde" chimwe chinhu chinoenda "pasinei nezvatakataurwa nheyo yepamusoro "yekuzvidavirira kune vane mutoro," tinofanira kudzokororazve chimwe chinhu chinokosha chinoreva kuti: Chechi yeSatani inyanzvi inorambidza zvachose kubata zvepabonde nevana pamwe chete nemhuka dzisiri vanhu. "

MuChitsauko ichi akati: "Chechi yaSatani ndiyo kereke yekutanga yekuita zvepabonde zvakafanana. Chero bedzi rudo rwuripo uye avo vanobvumirana vachida kuzvipira kune ukama, tinotsigira chido chavo chekubatana kwepamutemo, uye kodzero uye ropafadzo dzinobva pakubatana kwakadaro. "

  • Unitarian Universalism

Nhamba yeungano dzeUU dzakagadzirisa Run of organizational, Procedural uye zvinhu zvine musoro kuti zviite kuti zvive pachena kuti iri "Ungano Yokugamuchira": boka rinosanganisira rinounza zvinhu zvakakosha kuti zvigamuchire uye kusanganisira gay, ungochani, bondexual & transgender ( LGBT) nhengo dzeUU vashandi vanoita maitiro ehutano ehutano pamwe chete nemakambani evanhukadzi pamwe chete nemvumo (uye dzimwe nguva kunyange zvichida zvichida kwete, sechimiro chekuratidzwa kwevanhu) Unitarian Universalists vari mberi kwebasa ravo kuita zviratidzo zvepabonde zvakafanana mhirizhonga mukati mehurumende nemarudzi avo, kuwedzera kune muhedheni yezvematongerwo enyika.Bisexuals, gay vakuru vakomana, uye vakadzi vechibharo vanogara vachigadzwa semashumiri, pamwe nevakawanda vanoita zvoungochani vanozvimiririra pachavo, uye vanove vakaroorana nemutemo kune vakaroorana vavo Kare muna May 2004, Arlington Street Church yave iri web site yekubatana kwekutanga kwekutanga iri mukati meUnited States.Hurumende yenzvimbo iyi yeUUA ndeyechokwadi kuti inogamuchirwa kwayo yeSame sex u nion - "Imire pamativi eRudo."

Aleister Crowley mujasi reAztec, 1912.

Gender magic ndeyemutsara weAinorted Kinds of activity Inowanikwa mumitambo, inonakidza, kana zvechitendero uye zvekunamata zvinowanikwa muEast Western esotericism iyo yakazara mitsika yakashandiswa mumutauro wekuMadokero, kana inorondedzera mune kusarudzwa kwekunzwisisa kusinganzwisisiki kwemamiriro ekuMadokero . . Chimiro che1 chemashiripiti chepabonde chichange chiripo iye zvino nekwaniso yekugadzirisa kana kukurudzira zvepabonde pamwe nekuratidzwa kwechigumisiro chinodikanwa. Kufungidzira kweumhizha hwepabonde kunogona kunge iwe pfungwa yako yokuti kuita zvepabonde zvechokwadi chaizvoizvo simba rinogona kushandiswa kudarika rimwe chete. Dzidziso dzakakurumbira dzehupombwe kubva kumadokero kwenyika dzinotangira mumashiripiti emuAmerica Paschal Beverly Randolph, pasi pemusoro weThe Mysteries of Eulis. Muchikamu chekupedzisira chemuzana wezana remakore rehupombwe Ida Craddock yakadhindwa mabasa ekugadzirisa ruzivo, vazhinji veMatenga Bridegrooms uye Psychic Wedlock. Aleister Crowley akaongorora Kudenga KweMatenga kubva pamapeji eDayari The Equinox, achiti yakanyatsove iri:

Imwe pakati pezvinyorwa zvavo izvo zvakasikwa nevanhu, Uye zvinofanira kuwana munyori. Mutongi wei MS. anotaura kuti akanga ari mudzimai wengirozi. Dzidziso inotsanangurwa munguva iyo. Kunzwisisa kwake kwakakura kwazvo.

Bhuku rino rine zvakakosha zvinhu zveMashiripiti. Hapanazve magick mabhuku akazadziswa kwete.

Aleister Crowley akava nehanya nekushandisa Theodor Reuss uyewo Ordo Templi Orientis mushure mebhuku reThe Book of Lies pakati pe1913 ne1912. Maererano nenhoroondo dzeCrowley, Reuss akaswedera kwaari akamupomera kuti akazarurirwa mukati-kati (mafungiro) emashiripiti eOTO mune zvishomanana zvezvikamu zvisinganzwisisiki uye bhuku racho. Sezvo zvakava pachena pamusoro peRussia iyo Crowley yakanga yapedzisa zvisingayti, akapayona Crowley kupinda IX ° (yepfumbamwe mazinga) eEOO ose ndokumuita "Changamire Mukuru Mukuru Mukuru weIreland, Iona neBritains yose."

Kunyange zvazvo OTO yaive, pakutanga, yekurayirirwa kwevakadzi pabick pamitengo yakanakisisa yeDare iri, kana Crowley akura kuva pfungwa dzeChirevo ichi, akawedzera pane izvo dzidziso uye akazvibatanidza pamwe nemari yakasiyana inotevera:

  • Masturbatory kana kunyange mitemo yemagetsi yekuita zvepabonde inodzidziswa, inonzi Littleer Work of Sol
  • Kupa maitiro emashiripiti akadzidziswa
  • Nzira dzekuita zvepabonde dzakadzidziswa.

Purofesa Maererano neCrowley:

Bhuku reMutemo uyu rinokanganisa dambudziko racho. Munhu mumwe nomumwe ane zvakanakisisa zvachose nokuti zvichave zvakakodzera nokuti iye pachedu kuti asangane naye. Mutemo we1 unenge uri nguva dzose kutarisira huzhinji hwemabasa aya. Nokudaro kuti akupe simba kuti uite kuda, kunyange Munhu anofanira kunge asingadyi apo marutsi. Izvo zvakafanana zvakakosha zvepabonde. Tinofanirwa kushanda pamwe nechikoro chimwe nechimwe.

Farira mutsara weiyi Takura vavakidzani miedzo yakawanda yekuita zvepabonde uye zvepabonde zvinotungamirirwa nehupenyu

Agent ava Muvakidzani muSan Francisco parade

Kuita zvepabonde uye zvepabonde zvakagadziriswa maitiro ndezvezvikamu zveChitatu uye misha yakaitwa nevanhu vakagovana zvakasununguka, mavambo, kana zvinangwa nekuda kweshumo hwepabonde kana zvepabonde. Anogara achitaura kuti zviduku zvinogona kuwedzererwa nhengo dzevamwe vashoma vakaguma Adolf Brand, Magnus Hirschfeld, uyewo Leontine Sagan kuGermany. Vatungamiriri ava vakateverwa pedyo neTattachine Society uye Daughters of Bilitis kuUnited States.

Zvichida havasi varume vakawanda vanoita zvepabonde uye zvepabonde vanobatana kana kuti vanoshandisa kushandisa imwe tsika. Zvikonzero zvinosanganisira kushungurudzika pamusoro pehutano hwemagariro evanhu, mararamiro, kusaziva kwekugara kwavo kwetsika, kana kutora kuti vasagara vasina kuzivikanwa nehutano-kana-kunyange nevakadzi-based-tsika kana mharaunda. Vamwe vakatoti kunyange izvo zvinoratidzwa neWestern civilizations zvinotsigira zvitsva, zvine zvikanganiso, uye hazvisi kure kurega kuti vanhu vese vataure pamusoro pezvikanganiso zvakadai zvechizvarwa uye zvepabonde. Izvi zvinodzinga zvakawanda zvekuramba izvo zvinyorwa zvichiita kuti zvive zvinyorwa pasi pasi chaicho chavanogona kutendavira zvinyorwa izvo zvakasarudzwa-uyewo kakawanda kunyange zvazvo vachiramba zvavanoda ivo pachavo.

Kunyangwe Muraravheji mureza weharaunda ye LGBT

Kunyangwe Ive Bear Nevakidzani ndechekudzivirira mukati meGGBT Nevakidzani

Kubudirira ndiyo tsika inobatanidzwa nevakadzi vechikadzi Bi zvepabonde nevevarender varume nevakadzi. Izvozvo zvinogona kuzivikanwa se "tsika dzevamwe varume" kana kunyange "queer tsika", zvisinei, mazwi iwayo anogonawo kuva akakosha kune vose vanoita zvechikadzi zvevanhu.

Upenyu hunochinja nehujiro pamwe chete nehumwe humwe hweVadzidzi. Zvikamu zvinowanzozivikanwa sekugoverwa kune inobudirira yevamwe varume, vadzidzisi vebonde, bisexuals, uye transgender Varume nevakadzi vanobatanidza:

Jobho weiwo ungochani, ungochani, vanoita zvepabonde uye vanoita zvepabonde Varume nevakadzi. Izvi zvingave zvine:

Mazuva ano-LGBT vaimbi nevatungamiriri vehurumende;

Historical figures izvo zvakatsanangurwa se LGBT. Inowanzorwisana kana yakakodzera kuziva nhamba dzekare dzinoshandisa zvikamu zvemazuva ano zvekuita zvepabonde (ona History of novelty). Vazhinji vevarume nevakadzi veLGBT vanotenda kuti kushamwaridzana kune basa ravo uye nevanhu ivavo kusvika kune iyo iyo inobata nehutano hwepabonde kana kufanana kwakafanana kwepabonde.

Kuziva LGBT kunofamba.

Kunyatsonzwisisa zvinhu zvakabatana ne stereotype kune varume nevakadzi ve LGBT.

Zvinyorwa uye Nhamba Dzinowanikwa muLGBT Community uye LGBT kubudirira, izvi zvichabatanidza musha, kukura madzimambo nemadzimambo, kufara kwevakadzi, uyewo mureza wemvura.

Mune mamwe mataundi, kunyanya muNorth America, varume vanoita zvechikadzi, uye vaLesbiya vane tsika yekugara munzvimbo dzakasiyana.

Mhuri inoronga Zuva shomanana dzekucherechedza mararamiro avo, kusanganisira sekuenzanisira sezviitiko zvekukudzwa, Gay Games uyewo Southern Decadence.

Polyamory

  • Main post: Polyamory

Polyamory tsika yekuve pamwe chete nekliniki yako Romantic link kana inobatanidza nepamusoro pe 1 munhu mumwe nomumwe uye zvakakwana. Polyamory inogona kuonekwa mukubudirira, chikwata, kana kunyange boka revarume nevakadzi rakakosha kune yako kana kuti zvepabonde. Mune tsika shomanana iyo tsika yekuumba mashamwari akashamwaridzana ane rudo anokakavadzana.

Barika (kliniki inopesana zvikuru neyamapuryamory) Inogona kuva tsika yekupa zvakawanda kupfuura 1 murume. Inobva mumitemo yekuroorana pamusoro peC1 murume weUnited States; zvakadaro, uchawana mamiriyoni emarudzi munyika yose. Zvichida hazvisi zvisiri izvo mukati mekumabvazuva kwemazuva evanhu vakuru kuti vave nemadzimai akawanda. Rudzi urwu rwekubatana runonzi polygyny.

Imba yakawanda yakaroorana munzvimbo dzakawanda dzepasi rose Nyika haina kumbobvira yakagadzika kusikwa kwechimiro chechimiro uyewo mharaunda iyo kliniki zuva rega rega uye polyamory. Iko kune mitsva yezvikwata zvematongeramende zvakaedzwa kubva kumadokero kweEurope neNorth America. Iyi mihara, kunyange kune chikamu chikuru, yaparara. MuMadokero kubudirira kune mamwe maitiro kana mashomanana ekutsigirwa kwemapuryamory. Izvozvo hazvirevi kuti zvinotevera kutevedza kwekunyadzisa kwekuMadokero nekubudirira (uye tsika dzakasiyana) hazvipo. Kubva kuUnited States kunofungidzirwa kuti kusvika ku10 muzana yevanhu vanoita polyamory.

Polyamory iripo zvikuru sezviitiko zvakasarudzwa izvo vanhu vane masangano vakasiya urongwa nemumwe wavo (naizvozvo). Kune mienzaniso uye zvakawanda zvakasiyana-siyana zvehukama.

Mutsara unofanirwa kunge uri mumarudzi apo Polyamory iripo kana iripo inozivikanwa, iri mumamiriro ekubatanidza. Izvozvo zvingava chaizvoizvo kuziva kuti zviri nyore kuratidza zvose zvekuti West uye zvinokurudzira hupfumi hwekuda kana munhu akaongorora chokwadi nenzira yekusaruramisira kunoonekwa pachena kuti West ndiyo inogamuchirwa zvikuru neboka ravo re LGBT nePolyamory nokuda kwechikonzero ichi:

  • Zvepabonde fetus-based civilizations
  • Nyaya Yepamusoro: Kubata pamuviri pabonde
  • BDSM vatsigiri veTaiwan
  • Kunyangwe iyo nheyo iyo isingaverengeki inongova chaizvoizvo chiratidzo chepolyamory.

Bunny Sub Culture ndekushandisa zvakasiyana-siyana zveparaphilias pamwe neshure. Zvimwe zvirongwa zvekunamata kwaro bhinzi zvinosanganisira bunny nzvimbo uyewo chiitiko chinoshandiswa.

Kunyangwe Izvo Zvizhinji Zvinowanzoitwa paraphilias inowanikwa muBunny Sub Culture

Chiitiko chesikuclub chinotsigirwa neBunny Sub Culture, muIndaneti yemakatekodhi emasikati.

Migumisiro paMupata Mukuru ruzivo

Zvepabonde zviduku zvidzinogara nguva dzose uye kazhinji Svondo rakabudirira iro rakarurama. Yale purofesa wezvemagariro evanhu Joshua Gamson anotaura hurukuro yeTabloid inoratidzira mukurumbira, yakakurudzirwa naOprah Winfrey paZ1980s yakapiwa simba pamusoro pezvinozivikanwa nevhidhiyo uye yakaita kuti vanhu vabudirire ruzivo rwakakura. "S Lang inobva kune dzimwe nyika, dzakadai sevanhu vashoma, kuva chikamu chemashoko avo ane mazwi ane tsanangudzo kunyange kana kune zviduku zviduku zvinosanganiswa.

Madonna is Minority civilizations, somuenzaniso kukodzera kwaro zvose. Munguva pfupi, Vhidhiyo inoratidza Queer Eye yeGurus Guy inomutsa varume vakuru Vanopa mazano kana kuti mafashoni vanoita kupfuura.

Kwete-Western civilizations

Kudzoka mu2006, Thai movie Rainbow Boys yakaitwa naViaya Saeng-aroon, ichiratidza rudo rwemazuva ano rwakanga rwuri ungochani, rwakatarisa kuona. Vitaya akaita mutambo wemakwikwi yeClub M2, nzvimbo paa sauna. Kukosha kwemafirimu kunoonekwa mukuchiva kwayo pane imwe tsika kana ichienzaniswa neWest sezvo inoreva zvekuita zvepabonde uye mabasa. Chimwe chinyorwa 2007, Bangkok Love Story, yakatungamirirwa naPoj Arnon, yave yakarumbidzwa nekuda kwekufa nemaonero ako evanhu vanoita zvechinguvana nekuda kwekutengesa zvepabonde uye vatengesi. Varume nevarume vakagadzirwa zviwanikwa pamwe nevanyori uye nyanzvi kuburikidza nekushandisa mifananidzo yavo vanotanga kukwezva dambudziko rekusagadzikana uye zvepabonde nokuti kunyange nyaya inotsika mumutambo uri mberi. Munyika dzakawanda, asi kazhinji kunoshorwa nekusarurwa, ungochani nehupombwe hunowanzotenderwa uye huri pamutemo.

Kwete seEuropean civilizations iyo yakasimbiswa muKristu yakachengeta mitemo yakawanda inopesana neLGBB kusvikira munguva pfupi uye nechitendero, hupfumi hweChinese hwakange hwakanyanya kugamuchirwa pamusoro pekubatana uko kusingayti-kusangana pabonde. Kunyange zvakadaro paive nemiganho kubva kuhutano hwekuChina hukama hwekubudirira hwakanyorwa kubva pazvikamu. Iwe uchawana zvinyorwa zve-sub-cultures zvevose muhupenyu huri muChinese nekubudirira, uchawana vanhu vanopesana nemararamiro ehupenyu uye heterosexual connections.

Vakawanda veJapane vakagamuchira kuunganidza kwevanhu, uye kureva kwave kwakapoteredza nekuda kwezvose zvepabonde mabasa ayo ari hegemonic ayo asingayti chete muWestern modern culture. Zera rakapa nzvimbo yevaya vose vanoita zvepabonde. Yakazopfuura YekuWestern touch, Japan yakanga isina nzira yekuzivikanwa iyo humwe humwe hwevanhu hwakagadziriswa nehupenyu hweSensual sarudzo (ona zvepabonde zvishoma muJapan). Hegemonic maonero ekuti vanhu vanofanirwa kuita sei vanoenderera mberi kuva nesimba kune rumwe rudzi rweWestern civilizations. Pakutanga tsvakurudzo pamusoro pekuita zvepabonde uye mabasa ehutano muAsia Inotarisa zvakanyanyisa pamiganhu yakakosha inotendwa nevakadzi, nokuti "Zvigadziro zvekuva vagari venyika zvakasununguka zvakakwana murume wacho muchitokisi." Zvipingamupinyi zvinotendwa Pakati pevarume vevanhu veAsia vanobatwa nepamusoro-soro pamusana pe "chirevo chikuru" Mhedziso dzinofanirwa zvipo izvo "masculinity" zvinosanganisira mamiriro ezvinhu uye zvinogona kunge zvisingatauri Zvakare mukati memasangano chete asi zvisingayti mu nharaunda dzakasiyana-siyana Kupfuura nguva yeEra uyewo mumagariro eAsia anowanzonzi, mazhinji.) Kunyange zvakadaro, Sarudzo dzakasiyana-siyana dzehumumi (uyekadzi zveMagazini ino) Iva '' chimiro, wakakomborerwa.

en English
af Afrikaanssq Shqipam አማርኛar العربيةhy Հայերենaz Azərbaycan dilieu Euskarabe Беларуская моваbn বাংলাbs Bosanskibg Българскиca CatalàBSN Cebuanony ChichewaZh-cn 简体中文Zh-TW 繁體中文co Corsuhr Hrvatskics Čeština‎da Dansknl Nederlandsen Englisheo Esperantoet Eestitl Filipinofi Suomifr Françaisfy Fryskgl Galegoka ქართულიde Deutschel Greekgu ગુજરાતીht Kreyol ayisyenha Harshen Hausahaw Ōlelo Hawaiʻiiw עִבְרִיתhi हिन्दीhmn Hmonghu Magyaris Íslenskaig Igboid Bahasa Indonesiaga Gaeligeit Italianoja 日本語jw Basa Jawakn ಕನ್ನಡkk Қазақ тіліkm ភាសាខ្មែរko 한국어ku كوردی‎ky Кыргызчаlo ພາສາລາວla Latinlv Latviešu valodalt Lietuvių kalbalb Lëtzebuergeschmk Македонски јазикmg Malagasyms Bahasa Melayuml മലയാളംmt Maltesemi Te Reo Māorimr मराठीmn Монголmy ဗမာစာne नेपालीno Norsk bokmålps پښتوfa فارسیpl Polskipt Portuguêspa ਪੰਜਾਬੀro Românăru Русскийsm Samoangd Gàidhligsr Српски језикst Sesothosn Shonasd سنڌيsi සිංහලsk Slovenčinasl Slovenščinaso Afsoomaalies Españolsu Basa Sundasw Kiswahilisv Svenskatg Тоҷикӣta தமிழ்te తెలుగుth ไทยtr Türkçeuk Українськаur اردوuz O‘zbekchavi Tiếng Việtcy Cymraegxh isiXhosayi יידישyo Yorùbázu Zulu
{